Cysticercosis is an infectious disease that is caused by Finnish bovine tapeworm. The eggs of the pork tapeworm enter the body via the fecal-oral route and are carried through the bloodstream to all organs and systems. The larvae have a negative effect on the tissues of the body, crushing them, causing irritation and intoxication. There are various forms of the disease: cysticercosis of the brain and spinal cord, eyes, heart, skin, lungs. The most severe form of the disease is cysticercosis of the brain (neurocysticercosis). Today we will talk about the peculiarities of cysticercosis, as well as ways to treat it.
What is cysticercosis?
Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease that is caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm - cysticercus. At this stage, the parasite is a rounded education, the diameter of which does not exceed the size of 15 mm. The larvae move through the circulatory system through which they enter the eye.
Cysticircosis of the eye - photo
There are several possible causes of infection:
- non-compliance with personal hygiene,
- self-invasion with vomiting, if the patient has adult individuals of the chain in the body.
That is, parasites can get into our body, both outside and inside, which greatly increases the possibility of infection. Moving to the area of the visual apparatus, cysticerci cause irritation and inflammation of the mucous membranes due to mechanical and toxic effects on the body. The disease can be transmitted both from person to person, and through poorly cooked pork meat.
An interesting fact is that cysticercus can be in its shape for many years and for some time does not show its activity at all, but the average duration of the formation of larvae is about 70 days.
What caused the development of pathology
Camping, fun company and carefree life. What can darken a good mood? All favorite activities in most cases are accompanied by a lack of hygienic procedures.
Dirty hands, unwashed vegetables are all a major source of infection. severe illness. People with certain eating habits can become a hostage to pathology. At risk are lovers of meat products - hare and wild boar. High probability of infection due to improper handling of products.
Often, pathology develops due to the use of water from water bodies. Unwashed vegetables, fruits and greens - all of this is a great danger.
The pig's eye is not so easy to recognize, due to the prolonged progression of the disease and the sharp clinical manifestations. The absence of specific symptoms makes it difficult to make a diagnosis.
How does the infection occur and why do cisterns get in the eyes? Initially, the pathogen's eggs penetrate the gastrointestinal tract. To release them from the shell, certain conditions must be created.
This happens under the influence of gastric juice. It is based on a special component pepsin, which is responsible for splitting the shell. Small embryos spread through the body through circulation, getting into various organs and systems.
The main manifestations of pathology
Many people do not understand how dangerous this disease is. Therefore, they easily ignore standard hygiene procedures, without thinking about the consequences. Meanwhile, the cisters penetrate the body and spread through it.
Which system will be damaged is difficult to determine. It all depends on the blood circulation itself, the number of embryos and the severity of the process. In most cases, the pathology encompasses the nervous system, skin, muscles and eyes. The organs of sight suffer greatly.
The danger is that there are no specific manifestations of the disease.. Many people complain of decreased visual acuity. This symptom indicates many other eye conditions. Some patients have pressure in their eyeballs. On examination of a person, it is almost impossible to detect the presence of larvae in the eyes, due to their tiny size.
The main clinical manifestations of the disease include:
- image distortion
- increased tearing,
- pressure in the eyes
- reduced visual acuity.
Acute pain syndrome is considered to be the most pronounced symptom. Its intensity depends on the degree of damage. If a person has strange signs, he must immediately be taken to a medical facility.
Cysticercosis is a dangerous disease that can lead to the development of irreversible processes. Timely diagnosis and treatment tactics will prevent serious consequences.
Signs of ocular cysticercosis
Eye finnoz is a serious parasitic disease.. It occurs in almost 45% of all cases. Due to the penetration of the larvae of the pork tapeworm into the organs of vision, through circulation. The incidence rate is quite high. This is a major concern for medical workers. Late therapy can lead to complete loss of vision.
To prevent the development of serious abnormalities, a person must be knowledgeable in the matter of clinical manifestations. This will allow to timely suspect the presence of the disease and seek help from a medical institution.
The larvae of the pork tapeworm are small in size, making it difficult to identify them during the standard inspection. On the development of the disease indicate the characteristic symptoms, among them are:
- severe tearing
- foreign sensation in the eyes,
- gradually decrease visual acuity.
The presence of these clinical manifestations may indicate the development of other diseases. The absence of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult.
It is difficult even with a standard set of laboratory and diagnostic activities. If you experience any strange symptoms, it is recommended that you seek medical help immediately.
The larva of the pork tapeworm is able to transform and take the form of a closed capsule. This greatly complicates the process of diagnosing pathology. The only sign indicating the presence of the disease is a strong irritation caused by the shell of the larva.
When referring to an ophthalmologist, the patient should most accurately describe the clinical manifestations. This will speed up the process of diagnosis.
Diagnostic measures and therapeutic therapy
To make a correct diagnosis, it is necessary to carry out certain diagnostic measures. To determine cysticercosis allow standard laboratory and instrumental studies. This category includes:
- blood test
- skin biopsy,
- radiography of the lungs.
The specialist should examine the entire body for the presence of other lesions. To deal exclusively with the organs of sight is not advisable. The larvae of the pork tapeworm quickly spread throughout the body, the lesion can be localized simultaneously in several places.
In the study of blood, a specialist identifies an increased level of lymphocytes and neutrophils. On radiography, shadows appear, but only in those places where the lesion is located. A serological examination of blood reveals a rapid growth of antibodies to parasites and pathogens of pathology.
Symptoms of cysticercosis of the eye are characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission. Clinical manifestations can be constantly supplemented by new symptoms. In some cases, the development of neuralgic signs is possible.
At the time of diagnosis, all clinical manifestations are taken into account. Additionally, methods such as ELISA, RSK, RNGA and NRIF are used. According to the data obtained, the optimal treatment regimen is prescribed.
Drug therapy is widely used. Its action is aimed at eliminating parasites from the body. For this purpose, special preparations are taken, in particular Prednisolone and Mebendazole. If the therapeutic effect of drugs is accompanied by toxic reactions from the body, a special symptomatic therapy is prescribed. Additionally, patients are advised to take glucocorticosteroids.
To remove the larvae from the organs of vision, surgical intervention is used.. It is carried out in combination with the use of drugs Dexamethasone and Praziquantel. The use of these medications can lead to increased pain. To reduce the severity of clinical manifestations, anti-inflammatory drugs are used.
Cysticercosis of the eyeballs is a dangerous disease, leading to a high probability of vision loss. To prevent the development of severe consequences, it is necessary to seek help when the development of strange clinical manifestations.
Timely diagnosis and treatment tactics guarantee a favorable prognosis.
Causes of cysticercosis
The specific causative agent of cysticercosis is the pigtail in the larval stage. Different types of cysticercosis have a single developmental pathogenesis, the primary link of which is the penetration of the pathogen's eggs into the oral cavity through contaminated food, aspiration of infected emetic masses of the sexually mature form of cysticercosis. The development of a particular form of cysticercosis directly depends on the further spread of the pathogen larvae and their fixation in any organ or tissue.
Thus, the primary stage in the development of cysticercosis in humans is the direct entry of eggs into the upper parts of the digestive tract. To release six-jugular embryos from eggs, pepsin is necessary to excrete in the stomach, after which the embryos enter the general bloodstream through the wall of the small intestine and a hematogenous dissociation of the pathogen begins, in which embryos enter and attach themselves to various structures of the human body, turning into cysticerci .
Cysticercus morphologically represented by a liquid structure with a diameter of not more than 15 mm, having a scolex inside. The most common clinical form of cysticercosis is intracerebral, which is 74.5 - 82%.
Infection with human cysticercosis can occur by an exogenous and endogenous mechanism. Exogenous infection involves the entry of oncospheres from the outside. An example of exogenous infection with cysticercosis can be cases of illness in a person who does not follow personal hygiene rules, a laboratory technician who violates the rules for conducting research and work with infected material, people who use vegetables that were grown with a violation of agronomic conditions and are infected through the soil.
The endogenous route of infection with cysticercosis is observed among patients suffering from this pathology with antiperistaltic, when the segments of the parasite fall from the intestinal lumen back into the stomach, where new eggs are released. This form of cysticercosis is characterized by a high invasiveness. The reason for the development of antiperistalsis can be any foodborne toxicoinfection, alcohol intoxication, or any other state, accompanied by the development of gag reflex.
The negative effect of cysticerci on the human body is manifested in local and general reactions. The local reaction is due to the mechanical action of the parasite on the structures of the primary localization, and the general reaction develops with direct contact with the general blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid of their metabolic products. The most intense negative reactions are associated with the development of scarring and wrinkling processes accompanying the death of the pathogen.
Symptoms and signs of cysticercosis
When cysticercosis of the eye, the larvae may be located in various structures of the organ of vision, which predetermines the clinical picture of the disease. The initial complaints of a person suffering from this pathology are varying degrees of visual impairment, feeling of pressure in the eyeballs.
The most favorable clinical options for the localization of cysticercosis include lesions of the skin, skeletal muscles and subcutaneous fat layer.
In a situation when the larvae of the pork tapeworm are located in the subcutaneous fat layer, a kind of tumor-like nodules are formed, which rise above the skin. These nodular skin deformities are most often projected onto the lateral surface of the upper extremities, the upper half of the chest and the palm. Laboratory criteria for cysticercosis of the skin is the detection of severe eosinophilia in the analysis of hemogram. Histologically, cysticercosis of subcutaneous fatty tissue is represented by cavity formations with a thick capsule and liquid transparent contents with the presence of the parasite larva.
Cysticercosis of the heart is manifested exclusively in the violation of the rhythm of cardiac activity.
When cysticercosis is localized in the lung parenchyma, clinical manifestations are completely absent in the early stages, and the diagnosis is verified on the basis of X-ray data in the form of rounded deposits of increased intensity with clear contours located diffusely, some of which have signs of calcification.
Diagnosis of cysticercosis
To verify a reliable diagnosis of "cysticercosis in humans", the fundamental element is the use of a comprehensive and at the same time individual approach to the examination of the patient. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the epidemiological history of the patient (whether there was a violation of compliance with the basic recommendations for personal hygiene, eating thermally unprocessed vegetable crops and infected pork meat).
The data of the clinical course of the disease, as well as an objective examination of the patient with some clinical forms of cysticercosis, already at the pre-laboratory stage, allow a reliable verification of the diagnosis. Paraclinical methods for the investigation of cysticercosis are the study of indicators of the general blood test, and to a greater extent - the cerebrospinal fluid.
Instrumental methods of additional examination of the patient become a good help for most clinical forms of cysticercosis, and radiation imaging methods should be preferred.
Biopsy of the nodules with subsequent histological examination of the material is most often used in the diagnosis of cysticercosis of subcutaneous fat.
Serological methods for the study of a patient suffering from any form of cysticercosis consist in the use of such analyzes as complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, enzyme immunoassay.
In the conditions of specialized hospitals of an infectious profile, only patients with severe cysticercosis caused by damage to the brain and eyes are treated, while persons suffering from cysticercosis of the skin, skeletal muscles and subcutaneous fat are subject to outpatient treatment.
Anti-parasitic drugs form the basis of etiotropic treatment of cysticercosis, which should be prescribed with extreme caution, since their use in cysticercosis can provoke a massive death of parasites that provoke a severe allergic reaction in the form of anaphylactic shock. The use of a powerful antiparasitic treatment regimen should be carried out in a hospital setting and the drugs of choice in this situation are Praziquantel 50 mg per kg patient weight, Albendazole 15 mg per kg patient weight in oral forms lasting at least 14 days. Three courses of antiparasitic drug therapy with an interval of three weeks are most commonly used. Diagnosed cysticercosis of the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and skeletal muscles is not a reason for the appointment of antiparasitic therapy, and patients should be in the dispensary register and be examined in the dynamics.
The use of surgical techniques for the treatment of cysticercosis in one or another volume is indicated with the exact localization of the pathological focus in the brain and the available possibility of its unimpeded removal. In most situations in the preoperative period also used antiparasitic therapy.
In order to relieve the intoxication syndrome, as well as a massive allergic reaction, antiparasitic therapy should be combined with the appointment of glucocorticosteroid therapy (Prednisolone in a daily dose of 40 mg short courses), desinsibilizing agents (Tsetrin 1 tablet per day).
The prognosis for recovery from cysticercosis depends on the clinical form of the disease. The most favorable course is cysticercosis of the skin and muscle tissue.
Prevention of cysticercosis in comparison with its treatment is not difficult, so even the observance of elementary measures of personal hygiene can significantly reduce the risk of the development of this parasitic pathology in humans. In addition, the prevention of cysticercosis implies a complete rejection of the use of raw meat. Parasitologists recommend that each person before cooking pork meat to conduct a thorough visual inspection for the presence of Finn pork chain.
Cysticercosis - which doctor will help? In the presence or suspicion of the development of cysticercosis, you should immediately seek the advice of such doctors as a parasitologist, a surgeon.
Symptoms of ocular cysticercosis
The clinical picture of eye damage by cysticercus in the initial stage varies depending on the location of the parasites in the organ of vision. Usually, patients complain of discomfort, pressure in the eyes, reduced visual acuity.
In 70% of cases of ocular cysticercosis, the larva is introduced into the posterior chamber of the organ. Penetrating under the retina, it causes local hemorrhage and detachment. Subsequently, the parasite penetrates the vitreous body and remains there for several months.
In this case, the symptoms and the clinic may be different. Sometimes, the surrounding structures are not seriously damaged, and the disease does not manifest itself with severe symptoms. But more often an inflammatory reaction occurs, leading to clouding of the vitreous body, iridocyclitis and iritis. If the larva dies, severe inflammation in the form of endophthalmitis develops, resulting in ftizis (desiccation, death) of the eyeball.
Usually, the impairment of vision in the pig chain manifests itself as pronounced symptoms, making it relatively easy to diagnose the disease. When forming in the eye structures of finnomal formation, even of small size, irritation occurs with discomfort and pain. The classic symptoms of cysticercosis of the eye are as follows:
- Discomfort in the eyes: pain, swelling, burning, itching.
- Distortion of the visual image.
- Severe tearing.
- Reduced visual acuity (partial loss).
The most severe consequences are blindness due to atrophy of the eyeball.
If any of these symptoms appear, the patient needs to see a doctor as soon as possible. But you need to understand that even with the timely diagnosis of the disease possible loss of vision. It all depends on the location of the larvae and the nature of the development of the invasion.
Causes of illness
The cause of cysticercosis of the eyes is the infection of a person with eggs of an armed tapeworm (oncospheres). In contrast to the bovine tapeworm, they are able to develop in the human body, causing severe larval invasions. Infection occurs in two ways.
- In the form of autoinvasion, when a person with teniasis in a patient with vomiting, eggs from the intestines are thrown into the stomach. This case is considered as a complication of teniasis.
- When swallowed eggs secreted by people infected with pork tapeworm. These can be either oncospheres from one's own intestines (if a person is ill with teniasis), or from the intestines of another person. The main cause of infection in this case is the failure of personal hygiene.
The peculiarity of the eggs of most chains is the uniformity of the structure. Because of this, it is not always possible to determine which species of helminth belong to the detected embryos. This complicates diagnosis and therapy.
How to pass a child analysis on enterobiasis find out here.
The eggs of an armed tapeworm are oval or round. From above they are covered with a transparent, delicate shell, through which under a microscope you can examine the inside larva - the oncosphere. In addition to the shell, it is also protected by an embryophore.
The oncosphere has 6 embryonic hooks driven by muscle cells. With their help, as well as secretions secreted, the larva penetrates into the wall of the intestine or stomach, starting the migration throughout the body. The color shade of oncospheres varies from colorless to pinkish-brown. Eggs found in feces are usually already without a shell, because it collapses in the environment very quickly.
Once in the human stomach, oncospheres under the action of pepsin quickly get rid of the shell and with the help of hooks are introduced into the blood vessels. Blood carries them throughout the body - in the subcutaneous tissue, spinal cord and brain, eye structures, muscles, heart, hepatobiliary system, lungs, peritoneum.
Cysticercus developed from oncospheres, have a mechanical effect on the surrounding tissue. Their metabolic products and toxins from the decay of dead larvae cause severe toxic and allergic reactions. Around cysticerci granulomas are formed from eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophilic leukocytes.
Localization of larvae in ocular media causes inflammation, swelling and hemorrhage. The first signs of the disease can manifest themselves in the form of a grid in front of the eyes, the occurrence of sparks, distortion of objects, reduced vision.
The only source of invasion for humans and animals is a man infected with teniasis, which distinguishes the oncospheres of porcine tapeworm with feces.
The risk group with respect to the ocular form of invasion includes, first of all, patients with teniasis, who may become infected as a result of autoinvasion. Therefore, prophylactic measures for teniosis are also prophylaxis of ocular cysticercosis.
- The basic rule that helps to avoid teniosis is that domestic meat and wild pigs can only be eaten in a well-roasted / boiled meat.
- The installation of autonomous sewers and street toilets should provide for proper disposal of the contents.
- In order not to get infected with the eggs of a pork tapeworm from another person, you must follow the rules of personal hygiene - always keep your hands clean, do not eat unwashed vegetables, fruits and greens, do not drink water from unchecked sources.
The damage to the organs of sight by the larvae of the armed clinging chain is one of the most dangerous and difficult to predict helminth infections. Not always the prognosis is favorable, often the disease ends in blindness.
The advantage (so to speak) of the invasion is that it usually has pronounced symptoms that make it relatively easy to diagnose the disease. The most reliable method of prevention is to observe the rules of personal hygiene and correct, timely treatment of teniasis.
Causes of cysticercosis
The causative agent of cysticercosis is the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), the cysticercus or Finn (Cysticercus cellulosae). Cysticercus is an oval-shaped formation or vesicle, in which is located the scolex or the head of the pork tapeworm, equipped with 4 suckers and a double-row crown of hooks (hence the name “armed chain”).
In the tissues and organs of the patient, the shape may vary from round to spindle-shaped up to 15 mm in size, but rarely describe giant bubbles with awesome branches (the so-called branchy form of cysticercus). Over time, the shell becomes denser, due to the deposition of calcium salts in it, but the cysticercus inside is still viable.
The source of infection is a sick person, with the feces of which the eggs of pork tapew are released into the environment.
In patients with teniasis (pig chain), endogenous infection or autoinvasion may also occur (throwing mature segments of the chain from the intestines when vomiting occurs, followed by ingestion of oncospheres or eggs).
The susceptibility of the population is universal, but the disease occurs in a small percentage of cases - up to 5%. With the same frequency of ill persons, male and female.
Disease occurs due to ingestion of the larvae of the tapeworm into the digestive organs and the human gastrointestinal tract, called Finns or cysticercus (Cysticercus cellulosae). They have the appearance of vesicles with scolexes (heads of the pork tapew) located inside, with suckers and hooks on the end.
Evolving, the helminth changes with time in size, increasing to 15 mm and taking a spindle shape. Its shell is compacted and calcined, creating a favorable environment for the parasite to exist.
Also, cysticercosis can also have endogenous etiology (autoinvasion), when, when vomiting (anti-peristaltic gastrointestinal tract), mature larvae, oncospheres or eggs of pork tapeworm are thrown into the digestive tract.
Inhabited helminths release the most powerful toxins into the host, thereby destroying healthy tissues and provoking serious organ dysfunctions. In the trophic chain, a person acts as an intermediate link (carrier) and source of cysticercosis, highlighting viable tapeworm eggs along with excrement.
The level of susceptibility to the disease is quite high and is not limited by age or gender. But even with widespread prevalence, there is helminthiasis only in 5% of cases.
The nature of the concentration of parasites in the brain is predominantly multiple. Most often they are localized in the meninges, upper cortex and free cavity of the cerebral ventricles.
Even dying, the tapeworm retains its antagonistic, provoking the development of a chronic inflammatory process in the body.
Provocative factors of cysticercosis
The cause of cysticercosis of the brain, as well as other organs, may be:
- Non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene,
- Cultivation of products on soil fertilized with infected tapeworm eggs feces,
- Ignoring laboratory standards for analyzing infected feces,
- Eating meat inseminated by helminth larvae,
- Poorly washed and processed food,
- Tactile contact with a sick person.
The pathogenic effect of cysticercus in the human body
Once in the human stomach, the eggs (oncospheres) of the porcine tapeworm move to the small intestine, where the larvae leave them, penetrate the intestinal wall, and then enter the bloodstream. With blood flow, they spread throughout the body and settle in various organs and tissues, where cysticerci are formed (vesicles up to 15 mm with a clear liquid and scolex inside).
The main localization of cysticerci: subcutaneous fat, brain, organs of vision, muscle tissue, heart, liver, lungs, peritoneum, bone tissue. Up to 80% of lesions occur in the central nervous system, in second place are the organs of vision. Maturation cysticercus occurs within 4 months. The life of the larvae is 3-10 years.
The pathological action of the larvae is associated with:
- Mechanical influence (pressure of the growing helminth on organs and tissues and, as a result, violation of their function).
- The irritating action of the larvae on the surrounding tissue and the development of the inflammatory process is the occurrence of inflammatory and degenerative infiltrates. For example, in the brain - the development of meningitis, encephalitis, hydrocephalus, in the organs of vision - damage to the retina, vitreous body and others.
- Toxic-allergic effect on the body due to the entry into the general circulation of the parasite's vital activity products - parasitic antigens (development of a generalized allergic reaction, with the massive death of the parasite, the development of anaphylactic shock is possible).
What happens during cysticercosis
Infection with cysticercosis occurs when eggs enter the stomach, oncospheres of the pork tapeworm, developing in the human body as well as in the main intermediate host, the pig.
In the stomach, under the influence of pepsin, the oncosphere membrane is destroyed, the released six-hook embryos are actively penetrated into the intestinal wall, enter the blood vessels and are hematogenously spread throughout the body, settling in various organs, where the oncospheres turn into cysticerci.
The cystica is a transparent vesicle with a diameter in the range from millet grain up to 1.5 cm, filled with liquid, with a scolex inside. Most often, according to many researchers, cysticercosis affects the central nervous system (74.5 - 82%), eyes and muscles.
There are two ways of infection with cysticercosis - exogenous and endogenous. When exogenous infection of the oncosphere fall outside. So, patients with shadow can become infected through their own dirty hands, laboratory assistants - in cases of violation of the rules for working with the material under study, as well as any person through vegetables, berries, fruits contaminated with oncospheres when fertilizing the soil of vegetable gardens and berry crops with uncleaned pesticides.
Only patients with teniosis are endogenously infected with anti-peristaltic, porcine tapeworm segments from the intestine entering the stomach, followed by their digestion and the release of tens of thousands of eggs. In these cases, the invasion is very intense. The causes of anti-peristalsis are different: any food poisoning, alcohol intoxication, getting out of the state of anesthesia, as well as the introduction of the probe, etc.
Symptoms of cysticercosis
The clinical symptoms of the disease vary depending on the affected organ or body system, as well as on the severity of infection. Allocate cysticercosis of the central nervous system (CNS), eye cysticercosis, muscle cysticercosis, skin, subcutaneous fat layer. Other forms are extremely rare. The central nervous system affects about 80% of all lesions.
- Antiparasitic therapy appointed with extreme caution due to the danger of death of the parasite and the appearance of a severe allergic reaction due to its decay products (in particular, anaphylactic shock). Therapy is carried out only in the hospital. Inoperable cases of cysticercosis of the brain, cysticercosis of the eyes are subject to treatment. The following antiparasitic drugs are prescribed: praziquantel, mebendazole, albendazole. Three courses of therapy with a 3-week interval are recommended.Cysticercosis of the skin, PZHK and muscles in the absence of complaints is not treated, and patients undergo dynamic monitoring.
- Surgical treatments used in the case of accurate identification of the lesion and the possibility of its removal without damaging the vital centers of the brain. In the absence of guarantees of full recovery, the therapy is supplemented with conservative treatment: the administration of antiparasitic drugs - praziquantel. glucocorticosteroids), for example, prednisone, dexamethasone.
- Symptomatic treatment supplements the prescribed antiparasitic therapy (these are antihistamines - zodiac, zyrtec, suprastin, pipolfen, anticonvulsant, sedative, dehydration therapy, local therapy, etc.).
The prognosis of the disease depends on the form of the disease. If there is cysticercosis of the skin and muscle tissue, then the prognosis is favorable. If a patient has a lesion of the internal organs and, which often occurs, the diagnosis is made late, with a far gone process, the prognosis is poor.
Causes of parasitic eye invasions
Cysticercosis of the eye develops as a result of parasitism in the human body of Taenia solium porcine tapeworm. Cysticercus is one of the developmental stages in the life cycle of this helminth. It is most common among other parasitic invasions that affect humans. Helminths are tropic to the nerve tissues, so an eyeball is chosen for the habitat. The worm is dangerous because a person infected with it is able to transmit invasion, releasing mature eggs into the environment. Further infection occurs through the fecal-oral route through unwashed hands and food. Swallowed eggs, passing through the entire gastrointestinal tract, penetrate into the lymphatic vessels. They are spread to different organs, including in the central nervous system and eyeballs. Here is formed the next stage of development - the oncosphere. The latter turns into a cysticercus right in the eye.
The parasite in the organ of vision forms a fibrous capsule. Human immune cells do not penetrate through it. The individual remains protected and is able to live for a long time.
Symptoms of parasitism of a chain in the eye
Clinical symptoms are very specific and help to quickly establish the correct diagnosis. Symptoms dominate:
- Visual impairment. The patient has visual fields.
- Decreased peripheral vision. A person becomes unable to notice what is happening on the side of him.
- Painful sensations. They appear with an increase in intraocular pressure due to the mechanical action of the parasite.
- Dry eyes. Tearing is disturbed when the cysticercus closes the lacrimal canal.
- Sensation of a foreign object in the eye.
- Diplopia. This term means ghosting.
How is a worm diagnosed in the eye?
For research are used such laboratory and instrumental methods:
- General blood analysis. The level of leukocytes will be increased. Pay special attention to the eosinophil fraction. The number of these cells always grows with parasitic invasions.
- Immunogram This specific laboratory method helps detect parasite immunoglobulins.
- Ophthalmoscopy. With the help of a slit lamp, it is sometimes possible to notice the presence of cysticerci in the anterior chamber of the eye or the vitreous body. If the parasite is located under the retina, edema of the optic papilla, hemorrhage and inflammation of the nerve vessels develops. This is also noticeable on ophthalmoscopy.
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the eye. At the site of worm parasitization, a spherical anechoic mass is observed.
Treatment of ocular helminthiasis
In order to prevent complications in the form of chorioretinitis, clouding of the lens or retinal detachment, immediate surgical treatment is necessary. It consists in dissecting the soft tissues of the eye and removing the cysticercus. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. It uses the solution of "Novocain" in the form of drops. After surgery and suturing wound defects in the eyes laid "Albucid". On the organ of vision puts pressure bandage. The patient requires a long rehabilitation period.
To prevent infection by a worm, you should fry pork well. You should also follow the basic rules of personal hygiene, wash your hands before eating, avoid bad nail biting habits. If the worms were detected during the analyzes, special chemotherapy is necessary to eliminate them from the body. This will help to avoid complications after cysticercus hit the organ of vision.
The danger of cysticercosis of the eyes
Cysticercosis is quite dangerous for the human visual apparatus, and if left untreated, it can lead to complete loss of vision and atrophy of the eyeball. Due to the activity of parasites, there is a gradual detachment of the retina and the lens is affected, which leads to a decrease in visual acuity, even blindness.
In addition, the following diseases can be observed during cysticercosis:
- reactive uveitis
- other eye diseases associated with inflammation and mechanical damage to individual parts.
The main danger lies in the fact that this parasitic lesion is registered in more than 40% of patients who visit a specialist with complaints about the visual apparatus.
Cysticercosis can also be fatal, caused by epileptic seizures or extensive intoxication of the body.
What it is and features of the disease
Cysticercosis or Finnoz - an infectious disease that causes the larva of the pork tapeworm. The cysticercus pathogenic parasite enters the human body through dirty food, hands, poorly thermally treated animal meat. An infected person is a carrier of the parasite. From his body, along with feces, mature eggs are released.
Helminth eggs are in a special shell - a sphere that dissolves when released into the gastrointestinal tract. Such a sphere can have a different size, from a small pea to a large walnut. It looks like a capsule, at the base of which is the head of the cysticercus. The newly formed embryos, having freed themselves from the egg, begin to actively penetrate the intestinal walls. When it enters the blood vessels, they are carried by blood, settling in the vital organs.
Cysticercosis can affect:
- spinal cord,
- heart muscle
- respiratory system,
- skin covering,
When a disease of the visual organ, the parasite is embedded in the front wall of the eyeball, retina or conjunctiva. In the photo on the Internet you can see the parasitic eye.
The substances secreted by the causative agent lead to an inflammatory process. Often there are a variety of eye diseases, accompanied by swelling, lacrimation, burning sensation. With prolonged invasion, retinal detachment and lens damage is observed. Cysticercosis of the eyes can lead to dystrophy of the eyeball, and as a result - to complete loss of vision.
Pathogen and symptoms
The causative agent of the disease - Cysticercus cellulosae, helminth egg cysticercus or porcine tapeworm. Man is the final link in the chain of the parasite's life cycle. The main factor for the successful development of the pathogen is its entry into the intestine or stomach of a new host. Under the action of the juice secreted by the digestive organ, the shell protecting the egg dissolves. This enables the further growth and spread of the worm in the human body.
This disease is more common in regions with developed pig breeding. In animals, tenuicolic cysticercosis occurs, which is similar in principle to human disease. Pigs are infected by dogs that guard the farms. Dogs get an infection due to eating organs or pig meat. Piziformny cysticercosis occurs in rabbits and hares.
- If the muscles or fiber of the skin are affected, the symptoms are practically absent. Sometimes, during palpation, dense solid nodules under the skin are felt.
- Damage to the central nervous system may have signs of cerebral, spinal disorders in the brain.
- If the parasite has touched a person's eyes, the first symptom is a sharp deterioration in vision. In case of late diagnosis there is a risk of total blindness.
- Invasions of the ventricles of the brain cause increased intracranial pressure. There is a possibility of sudden death.
- Cysticercosis of the heart leads to abnormal heart rhythms. The patient may pay attention to frequent bouts of arrhythmia, tachycardia and bradycardia.
- With lung lesions, breathing is difficult, sometimes painful. A secondary symptom is coughing and choking.
If one of the symptoms is detected, you should immediately contact the appropriate authority for help.
Analysis and Diagnostics
Diagnostic research is an important and necessary measure for the full treatment of this disease. It is based on a list of factors and procedures that make up the general picture of the disease:
- history of the patient (has there been an earlier infection with teniosis, is food hygiene observed),
- clinical trial data (including characteristic descriptions of patient complaints),
- laboratory tests - blood tests (eonophilia above 40%), spinal cord fluids - lymphocytosis, elevated protein levels,
- diagnostic procedures (computed and magnetic resonance tomography, electroencephalography, ophthalmoscopic and radiographic examination) indicate the presence of compacted formations in the shell,
- biopsy, followed by histological examination of the resulting biomaterial,
- serology, designed to detect antibodies of the body to the pathogen (ELISA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RSK, RNGA).
We recommend to read:
Disease prevention lies in mindfulness of one’s own body and way of life. It is necessary to observe hygienic standards - wash hands thoroughly before eating, clean food and properly process animal meat. Do not eat obviously contaminated food.
If a person understands the dangers of such a disease as cysticercosis, prevention will become an important part of life for him.
If you experience suspicious symptoms, you should consult a doctor. Self-treatment in this case is inexpedient and dangerous for human life.
Cysticercosis is a dangerous disease that does not tolerate delay. The longer a person ignores the signs of an illness, the more difficult it will be to undergo treatment.
DO YOU EVERYTHING SEE THAT THAT YOU GET RID OF PARASITIES?
Judging by the fact that you are reading these lines now - the victory in the fight against parasites is not on your side.
Surely you have already studied information about anti-parasitic drugs? It is understandable, because parasites are dangerous, they multiply actively and live for a long time, causing irreparable harm to your health. Nervousness, sleep and appetite disturbances, immune disorders, intestinal dysbiosis and stomach pain. All these symptoms are familiar to you firsthand.
But perhaps it is more correct to treat not the effect, but the cause? We recommend reading the article by Elena Malysheva on modern methods of getting rid of parasites. Read the article >>