Gluten refers to high molecular weight protein compounds whose chain structure is distinguished by multiple branches and contains a huge number of chemical compounds. Its main source is wheat endospermia. It was from wheat flour that Cesare Beccaria isolated a pure compound, which in our time is very widely used by the food industry.
Gluten and gluten are considered identical concepts. The name of the substance comes from the word "gluten" - to glue. From here one can accurately judge the basic physical characteristics of the protein compound. In dry form, it is a translucent powder without taste and aroma. When wetted with water, it swells and turns into a viscous grayish substance without color and odor, but able to glue various surfaces.
The food industry especially appreciates the uniformity of the structure of moistened gluten, because this substance allows you to achieve an interesting creamy consistency of food products. Humanity uses gluten as:
- natural food preservative,
- natural thickener
- a substance that improves the quality of bakery products,
- household glue.
Interestingly, gluten is a particularly important component for bakeries. It is he who gives the test viscosity, sticks together the pores, preventing carbon dioxide from leaving the baking sheet. Thanks to gluten, the bun is not just rich, but soft and porous. It is the increased amount of this protein that makes bread top-notch. Breeders are fighting for wheat varieties, the quantitative content of gluten in which exceeds 30%.
Myths and real danger
Once in the human body, gluten turns into a viscous substance that is not always absorbed by the body. Many believe that it envelops the intestines, preventing the beneficial substances from being absorbed through its walls. Here is a refutation of some misconceptions regarding the harm of vegetable protein.
- Does not stick together. This substance is not able to glue the stomach, intestines or anything else inside the human gastrointestinal tract.
- Not caloric. Gluten can not be called a caloric compound. Most of its decay products are amino acids that are actively used by the body for construction purposes.
- It does not cause allergies. The compound is an allergen only for those people who are genetically predisposed to it (patients with celiac disease), for all others, this substance is harmless.
What does gluten do all the same? Excessive consumption of gluten-containing foods causes digestion, namely, fermentation, rotting. This is especially true for people suffering from microflora disorders or chronic intestinal diseases. Prolonged excessive consumption of foods with a high content of gluten leads to the expansion of gaps between the filtering fibers of the intestine. This contributes to the absorption of not only vitamins, water and other goodies, but also toxins, allergens, decomposition products, which ends with general intoxication of the body or the occurrence of chronic diseases:
- of cardio-vascular system,
The real fear of gluten induces patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease - a genetically determined intolerance to the substance. Particles of substance settled on intestinal villi in them cause an autoimmune attack of intestinal tissues, which is fraught with big problems and can end fatally. Such people are simply forced to adhere to a gluten free diet all their lives. Only in this case they can live long and high quality.
Scientists also identify a population group with increased sensitivity to gluten. Often, one of the parents has celiac disease or has enzymatic deficiency. Gluten use by sensitive people leads to intestinal malabsorption, manifested by:
- bloating, flatulence,
- intestinal cramps
- vitamin deficiency
- chronic fatigue syndrome.
Gluten free diet
The diet, which implies a complete rejection of gluten-containing products, just blew up the world of show business, fashionistas, writers. Gwyneth Paltrow and Lady Gaga have been practicing it for several years, showing off their figures, as well as excellent health. Adherent to the diet, cardiologist William Davis has published a treatise on the benefits of gluten-free restrictions.
But scientists are clearly criticizing the gluten-free diet, attributing it to a tribute to fashion, as well as the tricks of food magnates, because gluten free products are more expensive than usual. Mankind has always managed to find a special food enemy. So, what is a gluten-free diet good for?
- Limits high-calorie foods. Indeed, almost all the development of the food industry containing gluten is characterized by a high calorie content.
- Increases the amount of vegetables in the diet. And they are a source of fiber, acids, vitamins, which provides not only bowel cleansing, but also the saturation of the body with various useful substances.
- Improves all systems and organs. Indeed, due to the naturalness and purity of the products used (as well as gentle processing), their beneficial qualities are maximally preserved.
Some nutritionists agree with scientists. They criticize the gluten-free diet, arguing that wheat and even bakery products provide the body with vitamins, minerals, and protein compounds. The main source of health problems and obesity is not gluten itself, but the amount of food eaten with its content. It is also important that, in addition to it, it is contained in the same product. If this is only gluten, then its damage to health is very doubtful, and if additives, dyes, etc., then this "goodies" is not allowed for anyone.
Scientists also say that many manufacturers of food delights compensate for the exclusion of gluten by other additives: fats, sugar and sweeteners, flavorings. Therefore, most gluten-free products cannot be called low-calorie, and the benefits of their use are only to guarantee that there is no allergy to gluten.
In general, the complete exclusion of gluten is recommended only to people with its intolerance. And for the purpose of losing weight, you need to focus on the following rules of nutrition:
- keep moderation in relation to serving sizes,
- enrich the diet with natural products,
- choose products with minimal industrial processing,
- reduce the quantity but improve the quality of the side dishes,
- provide a balanced, varied, low-calorie diet.
What is gluten and what foods does it contain
The head doctor of the medical center, Sona Kocharova, told what gluten is and why a person needs it: “This is a complex vegetable protein, its task is to combine other proteins. It contains gluten in many cereals, such as wheat, oats, barley. Without it, the body does not receive enough iron, magnesium and B and D vitamins. It also contains 18 amino acids, some of which the human body cannot synthesize itself. Gluten helps to easily absorb calcium and phosphorus, which is especially important for infants. "
The exclusion of gluten-containing foods from the diet lowers immunity, increases the risk of allergies and the development of bronchial asthma.
Buckwheat, rice, corn flour does not contain gluten, but when making dough from these varieties of flour, you have to add special thickeners and fats, which is harmful to the body.
What is dangerous gluten
In people with celiac disease, such as only about 1%, gluten causes a reaction that prevents the absorption of nutrients. Because of this, painful symptoms occur: bloating, diarrhea, and nausea.
Signs of celiac disease can manifest both insignificant and very pronounced: up to intestinal damage, hair loss and anemia. Such people need a gluten-free diet throughout their lives.
The causes of celiac disease are many, the most important of which is a genetic predisposition.
Dmitry Yuryevich provides data from epidemiological studies. The prevalence of celiac disease with the use of immunological diagnostic methods reaches from 1: 200 to 1: 100 patients. Thus, celiac disease should be attributed to fairly common diseases of the small intestine. Celiac disease with severe malabsorption is much less common - from 1: 6,000 to 1: 1,000 of the population. On average - 1: 3,000.
However, there is a trend when gluten-free foods are increasingly chosen by people who do not suffer from celiac disease, but simply consider such food more healthy.
Gluten-free product sales growth as a result of marketing
Gluten-free product sales grew 12% worldwide over the past year. For comparison: total product sales grew by 4%.
In the UK, about 30% of the adult population knowingly reduced their consumption of gluten-containing foods or actively avoided them.
Global trends in nutrition have been going to Russia for a long time, so we can observe both positive and negative points. A gluten-free diet is no exception.
Nutritionist Veronika Khovanskaya notes that a special diet for allergies to gluten (celiac disease) is not suitable for those who do not have such problems. On the contrary, thoughtless adherence to it can cause discord in the work of organs and even weaken cognitive functions.
Slow carbohydrates are necessary in the diet of a healthy person. Reasonable consumption of carbohydrates in combination with adequate physical activity will help to maintain and increase health.
Candidate of Medical Sciences Petrov Dmitry Yuryevich considers the passion of people with gluten-free products to be a matter of fashion exclusively: “Its popularity is connected with the difficulty for a person without a medical education to understand the reasons for the development of celiac disease and attempts to protect themselves in this way. In many restaurants you can find gluten-free dishes, which will have special marks on the menu along with vegetarian ones. But in this case, it would also be correct to mark in the menu dishes for diabetics and people suffering from intolerance to milk proteins. ”
A study of the relationship of gluten-free foods and heart disease
A team of 13 scientists from Harvard and Columbia University in New York said that a gluten-free diet to prevent heart disease could not be recommended for people without celiac disease.
“In the medical community and among non-professionals, it has been suggested that gluten can cause obesity, the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy people,” wrote Long term gluten consumption in adults without celiac disease and risk of coronary heart disease: prospective cohort study. they are in the british medical journal. “As a result, gluten-restricting diets have become popular.”
The researchers analyzed data from more than 100,000 people suffering from coronary heart disease, and regularly conducted a detailed survey in 1989–2010.
We studied the nutritional habits of medical professionals (64,714 women and 45,303 men) who took part in two similar studies of the relationship between diet and health. It turned out that those who consumed more gluten more often bought whole grain foods.
After adjusting the results, taking into account related factors, the researchers concluded that there was no connection between gluten consumption and the risk of heart failure.
A gluten-free diet does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence-based controlled studies on this topic were not.
Researchers analyzing a sample of 100,000 respondents found that eating whole grains helps prevent the risk of heart failure and death from cardiovascular disease.
The conclusion of scientists from Harvard and Columbia University is similar to the recommendations of domestic experts. Gluten-free foods do not prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. People who have severely restricted their use of gluten can also significantly reduce their intake of whole grains, which can further affect heart health.
Do you have any special diets?
What foods contain gluten
Gluten is the heart of a plant cell. It is the main protein that forms the structure of the cell. The peptide contains almost all plant crops, but most of all its content in such products:
- bakery products,
- all cereals (barley, rye, wheat),
- cereal derivatives (cereals, bran, white flour, fiber, cereals).
Does gluten contain oatmeal? Yes! This product is 100% gluten-free. Therefore, with intolerance to this substance, cereal and cereal from oatmeal can not be consumed.
Gluten content in foods
Want to know the secret? So, due to the addition of vegetable protein, gluten is found even in sausages and canned goods. A small percentage of it is even in raw meat. So all adherents of a strict gluten-free diet will have to sit practically on the same water, this substance is definitely not there.
The gluten norm, which is necessary for the body, it is worth understanding that this value is not controlled. It is determined by the rate of human consumption of vegetable protein. And already in it the norm of the content of this substance fixed by nature is laid. By the way, there is very little of it.
Where "add" gluten
In deliberate quantities, this peptide is not added to the products, since it is economically disadvantageous to manufacturers. As it was written above, gluten is found in plant materials, and this is what they add to the production of various food products.
For example, vegetable protein is added to cheap sausage varieties, and it contains gluten. But vegetable protein is not artificially replaced with it, since it will cost dearly.
Now on the packaging of many food products indicated "gluten-free products." Unfortunately, you have to disappoint you, it is not 100% completely removed. Even if the manufacturer is trying to remove it, then to the end this will not work, since the destruction of the product cell will occur.
In view of these circumstances, manufacturers can only remove it partially. And then, to maintain the technological composition of the product, fat is added to it. This is necessary in order to mix and glue the product. But at the same time, its calorie content will be much higher.
By itself, this peptide has virtually no calorie content. But in order for the gluten-free flour to stick together, a lot of fat, vegetable or animal origin is added to it.
To do this, as a rule, they use inexpensive vegetable fat. For example, in ordinary sunflower oil, 99.9 g of fat, with a calorie content of this product 900 kcal (per 100 g).
As a result of these actions, the calorie content of the product increases significantly. This is important to know for those who think that a gluten-free diet for weight loss can help lose weight.
How did it then turn out that this talk of his harm and complete exclusion from the diet went? Yes, just like most other myths - about bad cholesterol, death from salt, and more.
This is a common advertising move that allows manufacturers to release new products at inflated prices.
Most often, this advertisement is used to attract the attention of customers to new products in the market.
Gluten - benefits and harms
Many healthy food advocates claim that gluten is a very harmful substance in foods. What are their arguments based on and what exactly is it harmful? In their opinion, and claims that when ingested, gluten sticks together the villi of the stomach. This contributes to poor assimilation of food and the fact that a person is losing weight, tired and all in this spirit.
In fact, there is a small percentage of people who suffer from a rare disease - celiac disease. This ailment is accompanied by a very severe chronic indigestion, weight loss, loss of strength and other unpleasant symptoms.
A gluten-free diet can only be prescribed by a doctor!
What is the percentage of celiac disease in Russia, there are no reliable and accurate data. In the United States, it was found that 0.5-1% of all people living there have a predisposition to this or are sick. However, these statistics can be doubtful, these are only approximate data.
Some sources claim that gluten negatively affects brain development. Here, everything is exactly the opposite, because for good functioning and development of the brain, B vitamins are needed, which give it nutrition and stimulate the immune system.
Think for yourself, to get an overdose of it, you need to eat a huge amount of a product. And how many of you can eat 20 kg of semolina or 16 loaves of bread at a time? I think that this is not possible for a normal person.
Celiac disease - a painful allergy to gluten
The immune system of some people perceives the substance gluten as a kind of allergen and causes the human body to “fight” it. First of all, the digestive system suffers, since gluten enters the stomach with food. This disrupts the functioning of the intestinal functions, the level of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fats is reduced.
It is generally accepted that gluten intolerance is a genetic disease similar to lactose intolerance. Most likely, if your parents or close relatives are sick with celiac disease, then you too are affected by it. In this case, all your life you will have to adhere to a strict gluten-free diet prescribed by your doctor.
Gluten Intolerance Products
wheat, rye flour and pastries from them,
cereals - barley, pearl barley, oatmeal, semolina,
flakes - wheat, barley, oat, corn (containing malt extract).
minced meat (not homemade),
half-smoked, smoked, cooked sausages,
sausages, sausages, minced ham,
any semi-finished products that have undergone processing,
What is gluten (gluten)?
Let's start with the classic definition. Gluten is a complex plant protein, consisting of two proteins: gliadin (gliadin) and glutenin (glutenin), and only gliadin is a problem for the human body. The origin of the name of the protein explains its essence: in Latin gluten means “glue”, as it is in flour gluten gives the dough the necessary elasticity, airiness and palatability of finished baked goods.
Gluten in baking is harmful to the body
Not by chance gluten is commonly called wheat protein: it is wheat that contains the maximum amount of this substance, its share in wheat is 80%! In addition to wheat grains and flour from it (as well as in wheat germ and wheat bran), gluten is also found in all derivative products and even those in which wheat flour is used as a thickener:
- in pasta and pastas,
- cutlets and sausages,
- sauces and ketchups,
- Salad dressing
- even in sweets and ice cream.
Rye and pearl barley, oats, even semolina and crab sticks - knowing which foods contain gluten that is dangerous for a healthy, and even more so weakened organism, you can adjust your diet in time and protect yourself from the constant daily effects of gluten. Among US food manufacturers already installed official gluten-free product labeling - “gluten free”However, this is not yet seen on Russian packaging: it is recommended to independently check the composition of each product and leave wheat and its derivatives containing in one form or another on the shelf.
Gluten-free bread is usually not so tasty and dry.
The harm and health benefits of glutenin
If a Russian person is advised to abandon the holy of holies of bread, cereals and pasta, then he simply needs to understand for what reason this is done and why. Numerous scientific and medical studies show that gluten affects not only certain organs of the body, but also the body as a whole. Perhaps the following facts will influence the decision to abandon gluten-containing products:
- people with epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, autism feel better if their diet is based on a gluten-free diet,
- babies aged 6-12 months easier to tolerate the introduction of complementary foods, if cereals and mixtures do not contain gluten,
- for patients with celiac disease (gluten intolerance) the exclusion of "wheat protein" is not just a recommendation, but a necessity.
How and why is gluten harmful to the body? The mechanism of human exposure to this protein is as follows:
- When gluten enters the body with food, it passes through the entire digestive system and ends up in the small intestine, where the true dramatic effect for humans occurs.
- By acting on the suction fibers of the walls of the small intestine, the protein causes their atrophy and intestines stop functioning properly.
- The immune system sees a foreign body in gluten (like a virus or harmful bacteria) and produces antibodies aimed at the destruction of "wheat protein".
- Probably, everything would have worked out if the gluten-containing protein called gliadin was not similar in structure to the cells of the thyroid and pancreatic glands, nerve cells and tissues of the heart muscle - the antibodies produced by the immune system attack not only gluten in the small intestine, but similar ones tissues and cells. The consequence of such "protective" methods of the body becomes development of Hashimoto's goiter, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis.
- The attack of immune antibodies leads to the destruction of cells of the intestinal wall, as a result of which the digestive system cannot function in full - there are problems with the absorption of nutrients, appears flatulence, constipation, diarrhea, allergic reactionsin some cases and intestinal permeability syndromethreatening serious diseases of the circulatory system and internal organs.
Gluten intolerance, or celiac disease, is autoimmune diseasethat provokes the human body to attack its own vital organs with antibodies - and the reason for this is the most common foods: bread, pasta and other gluten-containing foods.
There is a lot of gluten in pasta and pasta
What is especially harmful gluten after 40 years
The age of 40 is a critical point for the body, both male and female. It seems that the person is not yet old, but not young anymore, and habits, as a rule, remain the same, without discounts on the already worn out cells, tissues and organs. Some people do not digest gluten from childhood - this disease is hereditary and can be transmitted from generation to generation.
But after 40 years, gluten, even with a seemingly healthy lifestyle and caring for the body, ceases to be absorbed: present in cereals (wheat, barley, rye) sticky substance settles on the walls of the intestine, depriving it of the filtering and absorbing beneficial substances of the villi, triggering a natural, but undesirable reaction of the body. The mechanism of gluten intolerance after 40 years will become clearer if you pay attention to its key points:
- up to about 40 years (the borderline age period may depend on the lifestyle and quality of food for all previous years) the mucous membrane of the small intestine is in good condition and does not allow gluten to destroy the intestinal wall
- sticky wheat protein that settles on the villi of the mucous membrane day after day and year after year worsens their sensitivity: those responsible for filtering substances and absorbing the beneficial components of the villi become thinner, inflamed and gradually die off,
- the result is a smooth, like a tube, intestine, which practically does not fulfill its functionality.
But whoever is warned is armed: knowing what gluten is and why it is dangerous after 40 years, it’s worth taking action in time and switch to proper and healthy nutrition for the body.
Many people who refuse gluten notice better health
Today at 0.5 ... 1% of the world's people a disease is observed - gluten intolerance, which in general reduces to inflammation of the small intestine and a number of other symptomatic symptoms that arise due to intolerance to the protein of cereal crops of gluten or gluten. In the small intestine of such a person there is no necessary for the breakdown of gluten an enzyme called aminopeptidases. In the absence of the named enzyme, gluten protein has a toxic effect on the internal walls of the small intestine - the breakdown and absorption of beneficial nutrients into the body is disrupted.
People suffering from this disease are forced to follow a special gluten-free diet, choosing products in gluten-free stores in their composition or cooking their own food according to special recipes. Celiac disease is difficult to diagnose, even its symptoms are similar to gastrointestinal diseases and allergic reactions:
- abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation and diarrhea,
- causeless decrease or weight gain,
- anemia and hemorrhage,
- skin rashes and dermatitis,
- pain in bones and joints,
- chronic fatigue and nervousness.
Celiac disease is a severe metabolic disorder and is inherited or acquired.
Improving the quality of diagnostics will help gluten intolerance blood test: the test is based on the detection of antibodies produced by the immune system against “wheat protein” - a healthy person does not have these antibodies, but with intolerance to cereal protein in the blood in children and adults, they begin to circulate.
Despite the fact that cereals are one of the most useful sources of all trace elements necessary for the body, they can also contain gluten. Gluten-containing cereals and, accordingly, cereals from them include: wheat, barley (pearl barley), rye, oats.
Oatmeal, although it seems extremely healthy, also contains gluten.
Gluten Free List more diverse and they, if you want to eat right, can balance a healthy and healthy menu:
- rice - especially wild and brown,
- buckwheat - fried or unroasted,
- millet and millet porridge - a storehouse of healthy protein, fiber, complex carbohydrates and other nutrients,
- corn porridge and pasta or corn tortillas.
Knowing which cereals contain gluten and which are free of it allows you to correctly and with maximum benefit make your daily diet
A complete list of cereals that are harmful in celiac disease and useful for a healthy diet is recommended in the article “Gluten in cereals”.
Gluten Free Recipes
The gastronomic life of a person with celiac disease or partial intolerance to gluten protein can be varied. It only seems that it is impossible to live without bread, and there is nothing to replace pasta with a side dish: you can bake gluten-free bread according to recipes - it will be both tasty and healthy, and your favorite spaghetti can be replaced with corn noodles, etc.
You can bake not only bread - for the sweet tooth, the article “Gluten Free Diet” offers recipes for quick banana cookies and an original Japanese cake. Yes, and this gluten-giving elasticity test can be replaced: psilium and xanthan will improve the stickiness of the dough and its elasticity, give it airiness and softness. There you will learn how to replace the usual wheat (but such gluten!) And rye flour and how to choose ice cream and gluten-free coffee.
Gluten-Free Products List
It always begins with cereals: wheat, barley, rye. This is the basis of pasta and bakery products. It is important to know that gluten is also found in oats, millet and any cereal made from these crops. The same applies to drinks made from cereals:
To obtain a uniform consistency, improve taste characteristics, as well as as a preservative, it is added to other food products:
- confectionery - sweets, milk chocolate, cocoa powder, marshmallows, creams, ice cream,
- dairy products - yogurt, fermented baked milk, kefir, milkshakes, cottage cheese,
- sauces - ketchup, mayonnaise, soy sauce,
- sausages - sausages, cooked smoked sausages,
- semi-finished products - dumplings, crab sticks, meatballs, snacks.
Modern food manufacturers do not like to call gluten by his name, and therefore indicate him as “modified starch”, “vegetable protein”, “modified corn starch”.
People with celiac disease should look for foods completely free of gluten. And even better - with a note that they can be used for intolerance. As a rule, they are placed on separate shelves of the supermarket, and also marked with marks:
- crossed out spikelet
- gluten free.
With gluten intolerance, you can use the following products (with the condition of separate preparation):
- whole milk,
- dairy products made from milk on their own,
An allergy in a patient with celiac disease can even provoke the use of one equipment for the preparation of gluten-free and gluten-containing dishes. For example, if you stir the vegetable soup with the same spoon with which the pasta is mixed.
What is gluten?
A mixture of protein amino acids and enzymes, due to which flour products gain splendor and stickiness, is called gluten. In other words, gluten is gluten. It relates directly to cereal proteins and externally represents an elastic mass without taste and odor. When mixed with water, the mass acquires a gray tint.
In order to properly build a diet and exclude products containing gluten from it, it is worthwhile to understand the features of this element, its danger and benefits for the human body. Gluten is a collective term that combines a group of proteins. Last found in cereal seeds and are present in the diet of every person. In the dry state, the substance is a powder, and after contact with water it turns into a viscous gluten. The greatest problems when consuming products with such a protein are experienced by people with individual intolerance.
Thanks to its “adhesive” abilities, gluten is actively used in the food industry. It is used in baking bread, in the production process of meat products and various processed foods. Thanks to the addition of such protein, the products are stored longer, retain their shape and guarantee “airiness” during baking.
A small amount of substance is not harmful to health. If products containing gluten are regularly included in the diet, then the appearance of side effects is not far off. The following problems are possible here:
- gastrointestinal upset
- stomach pains
- deterioration of the absorption of vitamins,
- decreased immunity and so on.
Not everyone knows, but the quality of the flour depends on the volume of gluten in the composition. Here the pattern is as follows:
- Premium flour contains 30% gluten and more.
- First grade - up to 28%.
- The second grade - 23-25%.
- Flour flour - 18-20%.
It’s easy to detect gluten content - just knead a little dough and soak it in water until the starch is removed. The procedure is carried out until a small piece of sticky substance remains in the hands. The quality of mined gluten is characterized by the following criteria:
- level of elasticity and resilience,
A substance of a light yellow hue is considered to be of high quality. If the finished composition has a dark color, then this indicates a low quality flour. In addition, good gluten should not stretch more than 15-20 cm.
Benefit and harm
It was mentioned above that gluten is a group of amino acids, among which:
- gliadin proteins
- peptides and other elements.
All substances in the composition are important to the body. Scientists have proven that gluten content in human diet foods is acceptable. At the same time, the process of assimilation of beneficial elements and vitamins does not suffer. Refusal from gluten-containing products, on the contrary, leads to a deficiency of iron, calcium, B vitamins and other elements.
But there is another side. Excessive intake of gluten in the body is harmful to health, and especially in the presence of celiac disease - a disease in which the intestine loses its ability to absorb nutrients, which causes inflammatory processes, tissue damage and other problems.
How is intolerance manifested, how to identify it?
A feature of normal intolerance is the inability of the body to digest gluten, despite the fact that the intestinal walls do not suffer (unlike the case with celiac disease). Knowing what products it contains, it is possible to reduce their consumption or eliminate it altogether.
If you neglect the recommendation, then the following symptoms may appear:
- joint pain
- peripheral neuropathy,
- increased anxiety
- numbness of the legs
- vitamin deficiency
- chronic diarrhea or constipation,
- sore stomach and bloating,
If any of the listed symptoms appears, you should consult a doctor for advice. In such cases, the doctor prescribes a DNA test to pinpoint the fact of gluten intolerance.
It is easy to check for intolerance at home. All that is required is to take products containing gluten for two weeks, and products without it for the third and fourth week. At the same time, it is worth observing your well-being and recording any changes in a specially wound notebook. If you feel better after excluding the substance from the diet, you should take the following steps:
- Go to the doctor.
- Do medical tests.
- Understand for yourself which products are gluten-free, with an emphasis on names on them.
Gluten Free List
Scientists say that the daily dosage of gluten (in the presence of intolerance) should not be more than 50 grams (in the Russian Federation) and 20 grams (in the EU). When planning a gluten-free diet, it is worth considering that the intake of certain elements of the diet should be completely eliminated.
What foods contain gluten? These include:
- wheat - up to 11%,
- rye - up to 2.5%,
- barley - up to 2.5%,
- oats - up to 2.2%,
- bakery products,
- wheat flour sauces,
- coffee substitutes,
- drinks with oats,
- food additives - E411, E160, E471 and others.
It is often believed that wheat contains 70-80 percent gluten. This is not true. If you raise the Soviet GOST, then the content of the substance in question is considered as the ratio of fresh weight to total protein. So, if gluten contains 70%, then the volume of gluten is calculated by the formula:
In this formula, 14 percent is the maximum amount of protein in wheat.
In addition to the above elements of the diet, there is another category - hazardous foods. They also have a high gluten level:
- mashed potatoes,
- puffed rice
- prepared and soy sauces,
- ice cream,
- caramel and others.
It is also worth considering a number of other recommendations:
- Define a separate cabinet in the house (apartment) where the products will be stored.
- To cut bread with or without gluten, use different knives.
- When dieting, use separate dishes, starting with plates and ending with pans.
- Wash your hands while cooking.
- Do not bake pastries with and without gluten in the same oven.
- If there are suspicions regarding a particular product, it should be excluded from the diet.
- When you turn on a new product, you should pause and evaluate the body's response.
Gluten Free Products
People with gluten intolerance should eat mostly products that do not contain it. The list is as follows:
- fruits and vegetables,
- Fresh eggs
- beans and beans
- seeds and nuts,
- meat of fish and poultry (without pickling),
- rice and buckwheat,
- flax seed,
- oatmeal (must be appropriate inscription),
- tapioca, etc.
Today, gluten is used in the manufacture of semi-finished products from meat and sausages. Due to the ability of gluten to not dissolve in water, it creates the structure of the product and makes it denser. In addition, adding an element to the sprinkling compositions improves the quality of adhesion, improves the appearance of the products and reduces losses in the case of cooking.
Gluten is also used in liquid form. He processes various products to give a crisp. As for the dry form of gluten, it is used to create the glaze of nuts. Often an element is added to breakfast cereal with mineral additives. At the same time, to increase the satiety of the product, gluten is added in its pure form.
The element in question is used in the production of steaks and meatballs, sausages and ham. Thanks to the action of gluten, various substances bind together and give the desired shape. The same stuffing contains 3-7% dry matter.
An interesting fact is that nutritionists can easily distinguish which foods are gluten free and which ones are present. This is done to taste. Products with the addition of this component are tastier.
Gluten is also used:
- In the production of cheese (including processed cheese).
- When creating chewing gum.
- In the manufacture of cosmetic products.
But do not be afraid of her. The disease mentioned above has a genetic structure. For the rest, gluten intake is not dangerous. In addition, there is natural gluten, which is assigned an individual GOST in Russia. It is used in the production of meat products, sausages, in the role of stabilizer and thickener, as well as in the confectionery business.
In general, the mass hysteria that has swept Europe, the United States and taken for the CIS countries looks more like a marketing move than a real danger warning. As you can see from the article, gluten is a group of proteins that should be in the diet. But there is another side - the consumption of the same semi-finished products, white bread, rolls and other gluten-containing products is really worth limiting.
Gluten rate in the body
Of course, it is impossible to completely eliminate gluten products from the diet. Therefore, experts in the field of dietetics have calculated the necessary and safe amount of a substance that can be consumed daily. For our country, the norm is about 50 grams of gluten, but for European countries the amount is much less - no more than 20 grams.
If you follow a strict diet, then doctors do not recommend removing all protein foods with gluten from the diet. But it is worth remembering that there are not only useful or harmful products with gluten content. There is also dangerous food that contains a small percentage of gluten, which you may not even know about. And if you are allergic to this substance, then such products become life-threatening.
If you look at the list of products that contain gluten, you can make sure that their main part is “junk food”. Of course, if a person refuses to eat hamburgers, beer, sauces, soups and instant noodles, then his body will improve, and excess weight (if any) will disappear. But the main problem is not that you need to refuse even the normalized amount of gluten per day, but that rational nutrition is very important.
Many nutrition experts have noted that a very fashionable gluten-free diet in the West, which is widely promoted by world stars, is just another tribute to fashion trends. Since this method of eating is not a unique solution to all problems and is not the most productive way to lose weight. It is important to consult a doctor and listen to your body before you go on a similar diet.
It is worth remembering that the intake of any natural substance should be normalized. The inscription on the package about the absence of gluten or the emblem of the crossed spikelet is not a guarantee that the product is really healthy. Gluten-free oatmeal flavored with a lot of sugar will not be more useful than cereals, in which the dose of gluten is normalized.
Patients with celiac disease who are forced to go on a gluten-free diet often complain of a lack of vitamins in their bodies. Most often these are B vitamins, as well as iron. Therefore, doctors do not recommend voluntarily depriving themselves of natural dietary fiber, macro- and micronutrients that are found in cereals.
The following indicators testify to the beneficial qualities of gluten:
- With the addition of gluten to baking, vegetable proteins are supplied in sufficient quantities, since bread, rolls or other types of floury foods are usually consumed every day.
Gluten helps the body absorb better minerals and vitamins faster and faster. And it is gluten that helps to bind these substances.
Just one hundred grams of gluten contains about 80 grams of protein. It is this indicator that determines the high nutritional value of gluten.
This element cannot be equally useful to all. For many years, nutritionists around the world have been debating about its harm to the body. And these discussions are connected with the fact that gluten contains substances that contribute to the development of inflammatory processes in the body.
They can occur due to the fact that gluten protein is simply not perceived by the body. The latter sends signals to the brain that it is a foreign element that must be fought. The immune system begins to push it out, causing inflammation. Due to incompatibility with gluten, organs such as the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, and joints may suffer.
Inflammation in the digestive organs is easily explained - they are the first to receive the substance through food. Severe consequences of this fight can be diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
In medicine, a disease is called gluten enteropathy, better known as gluten intolerance or celiac disease. With this ailment, gluten causes great harm to the human body. The disease manifests itself in the fact that certain intestinal functions are impaired, namely the absorption process. It is not too common, it affects one percent of the world's population.
Gluten intolerance is quite common in newborns. The stomach swells when it enters gluten food. Symptoms are also present: pain and discomfort in the abdomen, diarrhea or constipation, diseases of the joints and liver, stomatitis, back pain, feelings of anxiety and anxiety, rashes on the skin.
At a particular risk are people over the age of forty. It is during this period that the stomach becomes weaker, and gluten is not so easy to digest. Often in patients after forty, gluten intolerance is detected, although before that there were no problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
For each person there is a strictly individual amount of gluten, which, when ingested, can cause a certain reaction. If there is complete intolerance to the substance, then only 25 milligrams of gluten will be enough to cause atrophy of the intestinal villi. Therefore, the person himself decides whether to completely abandon gluten-containing foods or simply limit the use of flour and cereals.
What foods are gluten free in: dairy products
To some extent, in view of the gluten content, milk and dairy products are dangerous. A lot of gluten is added to baby cheeses and ice cream.
Under the close attention of nutritionists is also baby food: infant formula for milk, cereals in milk for feeding and so on. Gluten is added to baby food, as a rule, to increase its nutritional properties.
In general, such fermented milk products are rather safe in terms of gluten content: hard and soft cheeses, kefir, yogurt (without additives), cottage cheese.
What foods contain gluten: cereals and cereals
People suffering from celiac disease should primarily avoid the so-called “big gluten four”: rye, wheat, barley, triticale.
Studies have shown that gluten in wheat is about 11%, rye and barley - 2.5%, oats - 2%. Gluten can also be found in various pastries and bread, in pasta, cereals - especially in semolina, bulgur, couscous.
Triticale is a hybrid cereal, a cross between wheat and rye. It was developed in laboratory conditions in the 19th century and is also a very dangerous gluten carrier.
Gluten is also found in dishes that have been cooked using breadcrumbs.
Grains such as rice and buckwheat are considered relatively safe. They can get gluten only in case of production error or dishonesty of the packer, when the processing of cereals occurs on the same equipment along with wheat, barley and rye.
Where Gluten Is Contained: Meat and Fish
A large amount of gluten is found in semi-finished meat products - sausages, sausages, meatballs and meatballs. Mostly, gluten is not present in the meat itself, but in the breading, sauces, spices added to it.
You should be careful about thin meat factory cutting. Often, for easy separation of the layers, they are sprinkled with a small layer of flour.
Fish also does not belong to products that contain gluten. However, be careful when ordering fish dishes, for example, in restaurants. Often fish is fried with flour.
Other gluten-free foods
Gluten-containing products include various breakfast cereals, sauces - ketchups and mayonnaises, vegetable fats and margarine, crab sticks, french fries, chips, yeast and baking powder, instant coffee and cocoa, beer and low-alcohol drinks, cubes for making broths and instant food, as well as canned food, which include thickeners.
There is a lot of gluten in the composition of soy and various dishes with its content - soy meat, sauce and more. In large quantities, food additives such as E150, 160, 411 and 471 are unsafe. It is worth noting that only these additives contain gluten, the rest do not.Such a group of products includes any candy products, chocolate and other sweets.
Gluten Free Food
The composition of such products does not contain gluten, so they are recommended for use by people suffering from celiac disease. First of all, these are natural vegetables and fruits, meat and fish without any additives, seafood without marinade and spices, nuts, amaranth, sweet potato. Also, such products include bread and pastries, which are made on gluten-free raw materials.
Some types of drinks and cocktails that are free of gluten-free cereals are useful. You can safely eat eggs, wild rice, homemade mayonnaises and sauces, which are made from natural ingredients. Also useful are oils of natural origin (both animal and vegetable).
Today, in large cities there are special points of sale where you can find products that are specially designed for people with celiac disease. Such products are well adapted for patients, and the food is completely digested by the body.
What products contain gluten - look at the video:
Why is gluten harmful to humans
Why gluten has become so bothering humanity in recent times. After all, our ancestors prepared cereals, cereals for more than one century. In all countries of the world, it was the first and often (for the poor) only food throughout the day. It's all about the disease - celiac disease. This rare disease affects 1% of the world's population, although doctors say that in recent years the disease has progressed and the number of cases has increased.
Celiac disease is allergic reaction to protein. The immunity of people with such a diagnosis makes the body fight gluten, hence the intestines. The patient decreases the degree of assimilation of sugar and fat, vitamins and minerals are poorly absorbed, and with the constant use of gluten, excess weight accumulates.
They first talked about him in 1990, when they began to notice in babies after taking porridges with a high content of gluten violation the work of the organs of the food system. They had bloating, diarrhea with a light fetid stool. Then the doctors sounded the alarm. As a result, baby food was revised, and the concept of celiac disease was introduced in medicine.
It was noted that if two-weekly products with a high gluten content were completely excluded, then all signs of the disease - diarrhea, bloating and constipation go away.
In this case, you do not even need to take medication. The problem is that gluten is capable of accumulate in the body for years over a long time. As a result, a person gets to the hospital already with many diseases caused by gluten. Unfortunately, modern medicine is not able to detect celiac disease in time. And this is not the whole list of problems that carries gluten.
Complications with prolonged use of gluten:
- Spoiled teeth. Buns, white buns, waffles, quick breakfasts from finely ground instant oatmeal - all of them are very harmful to the teeth. Gluten, contained in large quantities in these products, destroys tooth enamel and leads to caries. Within a few minutes, after, for example, wafers or a fluffy white bun were eaten, the acidity level drops sharply, which provokes the activity of bacteria in the oral cavity and until the teeth are brushed with a toothbrush, they remain in the interdental space . It is a mistake to think that a regular rinse will somehow solve the problem. As a conclusion: during the day it is worth limiting the number of snacks, and it is advisable to completely remove buns and waffles from the diet.
- Osteoporosis and joint pain can be caused by slagging of the body due to the high content of starch in food.
- Gastric ulcers, pathologies of the pancreas and gall bladder, are directly related to gluten absorption problems. The gastric mucosa becomes inflamed and damaged, and this, in turn, leads to serious consequences, up to oncology.
- Skin rash as a result of impaired functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and vitamin deficiency.
- Nausea and chronic fatigue.
How to recognize gluten intolerance
There are a number of signs by which it can be determined whether a person has gluten intolerance or not.
- Constant bloating.
- Diarrhea. The stool becomes liquid with an unpleasant odor, pale and foamy.
- Begin to torment headaches
- Hair loss occurs
- Immunity decreases. The patient is harassed by persistent respiratory diseases.
To have an idea of how important gluten is in the manufacture of food and what it is, you can recall the outdated method of wallpapering. When flour was bred with water, getting the so-called paste, and with this compound the wallpaper was firmly glued. The paste also works in exactly the same way when making, for example, pasta. It is not for nothing that in some finished products its content reaches 60%.
Where Gluten Is Contained: Product List
- First of all, it is bread and other pastries. Thanks to gluten, they retain freshness, softness and splendor much longer. The highest gluten content in long-term bread; in some of its types, the content reaches 50%. Gluten allows you to store bread in polyethylene for as long as possible.
- Confectionery industry. Gluten in industry is an excellent preservative and its use is not limited to bread and other pastries only. Confectionery products - waffles, cookies, pastries, long-term storage and much more contains gluten.
- Semolina, pearl barley, oatmeal and barley porridge.
- The meat industry adds gluten to sausages and inexpensive sausages. Frozen dumplings and cutlets in packages also contain this dangerous preservative.
- Sauces, ketchups, mayonnaise are enriched with gluten for long-term storage and enhance the taste.
- Even the dairy industry cannot do without gluten. Yoghurts, condensed milk and ice cream are leaders in starch content.
- Gluten, oddly enough, is part of not only products, but also well-known drinks. Such as: vodka, gin, beer, whiskey, as well as carbonated soft drinks: Coca and Pepsi-Cola, instant coffee, cappuccino, cocoa and black granulated tea.
Gluten is also included in many vitamin complexes of mass production. Such, for example, as Decamevit, Komplevit and Kvadevit. There is gluten even in activated carbon.
Gluten Sensitivity and Intolerance
There are two types of diseases that are directly related to gluten use: intolerance gluten free and non-potassium sensitivity to him. If the first disease affects 1% of the world's population, then about 13% suffer from sensitivity to it.
Hypersensitivity to gluten can be determined by the following signs:
- Gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhea, flatulence, bloating. Sometimes nausea and pain in the stomach torment.
- As with gluten intolerance, acne and even dangerous skin diseases associated with metabolic disorders - erythema and eczema can appear.
- General malaise: headache, numbness in the hands, muscle hypertonicity, joint pain. The patient is overcome by chronic fatigue, scattered attention. With a long course of the disease, depression develops.
- Due to poor absorption of trace elements, anemia occurs.
- Decreased immunity often provokes ulcerative stomatitis.
Unfortunately, the diagnosis of non-potassium sensitivity to gluten can only be made indirectly. Diagnostics there are no such diseases. To establish such a diagnosis, doctors should examine and rule out other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as allergies to gluten. To determine the dependence of the patient's condition on gluten use is easiest with gluten free diet. During the diet, all products containing gluten are excluded and the condition of the patient is monitored. Similar if necessary test spend several times.
Gluten Free Sensitivity Test
Nutritionists have compiled sample menu for a gluten free diet. After passing this seven-day test, you can find out whether gluten interferes with health or not.
If the condition has improved, diarrhea, diarrhea has gone, stomach pains have disappeared, then cause of malaise definitely in excess starch in the body. In such cases, of course, draw your own conclusions. Let's look at a gluten-free diet.
Breakfast: omelet with two eggs and herbs. Prepared in vegetable oil or completely without oil.
Dinner: Transparent chicken stock with rice. On the second - boiled chicken with a fresh salad.
Dinner: buckwheat porridge with beef patties. It is better to cook cutlets yourself, with a small amount of bread or flour as a part of minced meat.
Breakfast: Fried eggs sprinkled with greens
Lunch: Vegetable soup, cooked on the water. On the second - beef or chicken liver in sour cream sauce. Garnished with mashed potatoes and a salad with fresh vegetables or boiled vegetables without mayonnaise.
Dinner: Boiled or fried fish with vegetable salad
Breakfast: Yesterday's fish with green salad
Lunch: Sour cabbage soup, and on the second - minced chicken cutlets with sour cream sauce. You can boil potatoes for a side dish. Be sure to include various fresh vegetables: tomatoes or cucumbers.
Breakfast: Low-fat cottage cheese with yogurt. You can not add sugar to the curd. To enhance the taste, you can put nuts or raisins.
Lunch: Red borsch with lean meat and boiled fish with rice
Dinner: Grilling meat with buckwheat.
Breakfast: Boiled eggs (2 pcs.) With a salad of fresh tomatoes and cucumbers
Lunch: Borsch, and on the second puree with meat and vegetable salad
Dinner: Zucchini or bell pepper stuffed with minced meat.
Breakfast: Boiled Beans with Eggs
Lunch: vegetable puree soup. Best to take zucchini or pumpkin. On the second - a stew of vegetables and meat.
Dinner: Fish, baked or boiled. Vegetable stew
Breakfast: Two-egg or fish
Lunch: Chicken wings and boiled rice
Dinner: Empty buckwheat porridge. Cottage cheese with sour cream and sugar free.
It is advisable to season salads olive or soybean oil, you can put sour cream in the salad. It is best to take fresh tomatoes and cucumbers as salad ingredients, and it is recommended to use sauerkraut. Various options of homemade pickles are possible.
Of drinks allowed to drink green or black tea and natural brewed coffee. Sugar can not be added, only spices - cinnamon or ginger.
The following recommendations are made for a child with a gluten allergy:
- The child should have his own personal locker where gluten-free products will be kept.
- To cut gluten-free bread, a separate knife is opened with a board.
- If the child is allergic to milk, you will need a separate knife and saucer for slicing lactose-free margarine.
- Parents will need to constantly wash their hands after cooking for themselves and before cooking for the child. Products must not be allowed to mix.
- It is not recommended to bake two pastries at the same time in the same oven: gluten-free and ordinary.
- New products are introduced carefully one at a time and monitor the child’s reaction.
- For any question, consult a doctor, and not listen to the advice of strangers. It is hazardous to health.
What is the danger of gluten understood, but is there any benefit from it? When there are no contraindications and the person is completely healthy, then gluten can be consumed, of course. Gluten is a source of B and D vitamins, as well as trace elements such as iron and magnesium.
Moreover, resourceful Japanese have learned how to use the properties of gluten for the benefit of humans. With the help of gluten, Japanese nutritionists developed a dish - the horse.
For its preparation, a fresh root of the plant is taken to the horse. From the synthesized root of the plant, flour is prepared and cakes are baked. The dish does not contain either taste or aroma, but in Japan it is a very popular and sought-after product. So the benefits of gluten still exist.