The summer period is good with an abundance of fresh fruits and berries, as well as sunny heat. However, all of this has a flip side. Microbes in the heat begin to multiply at a double rate, and delicate foods quickly deteriorate and become the ideal environment for infection. As a result, doctors have noted a surge in intestinal infections. Today we’ll talk about how to deal with their consequences. How to be treated for intestinal infections, what you can eat and how to help your body recover faster.
Proper nutrition for intestinal infections in children
In no case should you starve during the treatment of acute intestinal infections. This will only reduce the protective functions of an already weakened organism, and will also suspend the process of restoration of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract. After detecting the disease, you must follow a diet, in particular, follow the recommendations listed below:
- eat gentle foods that are easy to digest,
- cook food in a double boiler, puree, boil or wipe,
- in the diet to reduce the amount of carbohydrates, fats, salt and calories,
- consume foods rich in protein, as well as containing a minimal amount of lactose, or which it is not part of at all, sour-milk foods and drinks rich in lacto-and bifidobacteria,
- reduce the amount of food consumed in the first day of the disease by 15-20% (with fairly severe forms of the disease up to 50%) of the generally accepted norm,
- eat 5 or 6 times a day, preheating food to 33-38 degrees.
Temporarily need to be excluded from the diet of children:
- intestinal activity stimulating products
- raw fruits and berries with a sour taste, as well as vegetables that have not undergone heat treatment,
- various oils (in pure form),
- confectionery, fresh flour products,
- legumes, sauerkraut, tangerines, oranges, pears, grapes, plums, beets,
- fatty meat, fish.
Diet for intestinal infection in a child
In the acute period of intestinal infection, children need to abandon milk, because it stimulates intestinal motility. It is advisable to drink drinks rich in bifidobacteria, which means that they promote good digestion. You can include the medical product Lactofidus in the diet. On the first day after the occurrence of the pathology, brown bread should be discarded, since it will have an effect similar to cow's milk.
After normalizing your appetite, when vomiting stops and signs of intoxication subside, you can eat lean meat, as well as lean fish, egg yolk and steam omelet, crackers made of white bread, any cereals on the water (except for barley), cereal soups with boiled noodles on light meat broth. At the stage of recovery, children need to be given vegetables enriched with pectin, a substance that can connect water molecules, increase in size, passing into a foamy substance that acts as an adsorbent for the gastrointestinal tract, and in an acidic environment that releases calcium - an element that reduces inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
It is also recommended to introduce fruits and vegetables into the diet, since they have bactericidal activity, as well as vitamins, fructose, carotene and glucose. At the stage of acute intestinal infection, it is necessary to give the child baked vegetables and fruits. This will help to cope with intoxication faster, normalize stool and speed up recovery.
Diet for OCI in children from birth to 6 months
For infants with intestinal infection, a special diet is provided in connection with the peculiarities of their nutrition. It is best to feed the baby with mother’s milk every 2 hours in a volume of 50 ml (that is, up to 10 times a day), you can follow the rule of “free feeding”. If the baby has previously received an adapted milk mixture, then for intestinal infection it is advisable for him to use mixtures in which there is no lactose or its minimum amount is contained. In severe cases, as well as with malnutrition, it may be recommended to introduce mixtures based on protein hydrolyzate into the diet. This is necessary to restore the normal operation of the digestive tract.
With intestinal infection, it is best to adhere to a diet that is tailored to the characteristics of the child, the course of the pathology, the presence or absence of vomiting, constant spitting up. General recommendations are indicated in the table, while it is advisable to count the feedings after a night break (lasting 6 hours).
Intestinal infections are one of the most common diseases in children. Almost every third child gets sick in the summer. Peak incidence of intestinal infections occurs in the summer. Very often, a child can catch the disease after eating poor-quality food or poorly washed fruits.
Another common cause of the disease is swallowing water from ponds when swimming. A kid splashing in a river or lake can taste the water. A small amount is enough for infection. In the sea, the concentration of pathogens can also be very high.
If the pond is with standing water, the risk of infection increases several times. In warm time, various pathogenic bacteria actively grow and multiply in it.
Most commonly, intestinal infections cause:
- Different types of viruses. These can be rotaviruses, adenoviruses, and many other species. Once in the baby's body, they quickly penetrate the bloodstream and cause infection. The development of a disease when infected with viruses is usually rapid (sometimes 6-8 hours after it enters the bloodstream).
- Pathogenic bacteria. Quite often, infection with salmonella, Shigella, dysentery bacillus, Proteus or Escherichia coli occurs. They usually cause severe watery diarrhea. The number of bowel movements can reach 10 times a day. The child becomes moody, refuses food.
- The simplest. They become the cause of intestinal disorders much more often. The most common pathogens are amoeba or balantidia.
Children suffer from intestinal disorders much more often than adults. This is due to the imperfection of the structure of their digestive system. The immunity of the child is very labile. It is not always able to withstand the aggressive effects of bacteria. If a child is weakened or has recently had any catarrhal disease, he can easily become infected with an intestinal infection.
Dr. Komarovsky believes that with any intestinal disorder, a therapeutic diet is the most important condition for the baby to recover quickly. During an acute period of intestinal upset, a diet that is comfortable for digestion should be included in the diet. It must be chopped.
See the video below for more details.
The main principles of a therapeutic diet for infectious intestinal disorder:
- Compliance with the diet for a month. The first week is aimed at restoring the volume of fluid lost by the body. The purpose of the diet for 2-3 weeks is to introduce the necessary electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements into the body. Their level catastrophically drops after profuse vomiting and diarrhea. From the fourth week they are already moving to the full familiar table, fixing the effect obtained from treatment.
- Be sure to stop vomiting. If the baby's body continues to lose water through vomiting or diarrhea, it is useless to drink the baby. In such cases, antiemetic drugs are prescribed, which are prescribed by a pediatrician. It must be remembered that all drugs have side effects.
- You should eat in small portions, but often enough. This will not increase vomiting or loose stools. It is better to feed the baby at the same time, strictly by the hour.
- Fasting with intestinal upset is unacceptable! On the first day, children should cut all servings exactly half. Hunger will only weaken the children's organism, which at this time so needs an adequate supply of vital nutrients and energy.
- It is better to give preference to food that is sufficiently crushed. Potato or carrot puree is good. If a child likes broccoli or cauliflower, you can safely add them to the menu. Meat should also be minced. Roll it several times through a meat grinder with a medium-sized grill. You can also grind everything in a blender. This will be an excellent basis for cooking meatballs or meatballs.
- The basis of nutrition should be protein foods. During the acute period of intestinal infection, it is better to give preference to meat products that are quickly absorbed and digested. It can be stewed dumplings with grated rice for a side dish or a light soup with chicken meatballs.
- Cook in a double boiler or slow cooker. It is allowed to use the baking method in the oven. All fried or grilled foods are not the best choice. They can damage the inflamed intestinal wall, increasing diarrhea.
- Observe the temperature regime of serving dishes. Cooked food should be cooled to 40-45 degrees. Strongly chilled or cool drinks should also be excluded. They significantly activate the passage of food through the intestines, thereby increasing diarrhea.
Acute intestinal upset diet
The best choice during the acute period will be cooking porridge on the water. It is better not to add cow's milk. If the baby is still a baby, but is already getting lures, then you can dilute the crushed porridge with mother's milk.
You can safely cook buckwheat, corn, oatmeal. Choose chopped cereals rather than whole grains. They are easier to digest and will not be able to scratch the irritated intestinal wall. In the early days, porridge will have to be very boiled. By consistency, they should be quite liquid, more reminiscent of soup. Then it is no longer required. Cook the porridge usual for the child. Some add mashed vegetable or fruit puree. Food can be slightly salted.
Be sure to include meat products in your diet. Try to keep them on the menu at least 1-2 times a day. Chicken minced meatballs will be an excellent basis for lunch. You can add vegetable puree from allowed vegetables or boiled porridge to the side dish. It is better not to give lump meat to small children. A stomach weakened after repeated vomiting will not be able to split it. This can even provoke pain in the baby’s tummy.
On the 7-10th day, dairy products can be introduced into the diet. Start with a small amount. It is enough 1-2 teaspoons at a time. You can choose low-fat cottage cheese, kefir or yogurt, enriched with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. They will help restore normal microflora in the intestines. This is necessary to enhance immunity in the fight against intestinal infection. Make sure all dairy products are fresh. Poor nutrition can significantly increase diarrhea or cause indigestion.
Do not forget about enough fluid. The child's body as a result of severe vomiting or diarrhea is very dehydrated. To compensate for the water and electrolyte balance, a large amount of water is required. You can give your baby simple water cooled to room temperature.
Various fruit drinks and compotes will do. They can be prepared from dried fruits or berries. If the child has severe diarrhea, do not add prunes to the compote to normalize the stool.
What foods are best avoided?
Some products should be completely excluded from the diet of a sick child (especially in the first 2-3 weeks after the onset of the disease). You can expand the table and bring the menu to the previous level in three weeks.
The following products may cause harm:
- Milk. The use of milk in the first 2 weeks is strictly prohibited. Dairy whole foods can cause increased diarrhea. During this period, the damaged intestine cannot well break down all the components of milk. After drinking a glass of milk, the child becomes more frequent stools, abdominal pain.
- Fatty and heavy foods. The enzymatic ability to break down fatty foods during an intestinal disorder is significantly reduced. The body directs all efforts to fight the pathogen of infection. He absolutely does not have enough strength to digest fatty foods. The undigested food components are excreted through the intestines along with copious loose stools. Diarrhea worsens, nausea sets in.
- Fresh bread, as well as any buns. It contains a huge amount of gluten. He sticks together all the intestinal villi, preventing food from moving. This can markedly increase fermentation and putrefactive reactions in the body. Choose dried yesterday crackers. They will be a great addition to the broth, cooked from low-fat chicken, fish.
- Fresh fruits and vegetables. It is better to bake them with dried fruits in the oven (you can also pre-cook, and then grind with a blender to a puree state). Add some sugar to taste. This will be a great alternative to buying mashed potatoes in jars.
- Spicy and sour dishes. A large number of spices irritates the inflamed wall of the stomach. This causes vomiting and aggravates nausea. Do not add onions and garlic to meat dishes. They irritate the intestinal wall, enhancing the inflammatory process
- Confectionery. Cakes, cakes, chocolate increase the load on the liver. This prevents the body from fully neutralizing the toxins that bacteria secrete during reproduction.
- Strong meat broths. They contain too many extractive substances that increase nausea. Very poorly digested. Enzymatic pancreatic insufficiency (up to acute pancreatitis) is caused.
- Legumes and cabbage in any form. They lead to strong gas formation. The intestinal wall from gases is stretched, intensifying the pain syndrome. The child’s abdomen becomes like a drum; touching it is painful.
Chicken Soup with Meatballs and Cauliflower
Cook lean chicken stock. Remove skin and remove all chicken films. Remove the prepared meat from the broth. Scroll it 2 times in a meat grinder with a fine mesh. Add some salt and 1 egg. Form small meatballs.
In a boiling broth, add a couple of cauliflower inflorescences and 1 potato, cut into small cubes. Cook for 10-15 minutes. When the vegetables are soft, they are ready. Turn off the stove. Grind all the ingredients with a blender. It should be mashed soup.
Add 2-3 meatballs to the cooled soup before serving. Such a soup can be eaten with wheat crackers.
Baked pear fruit puree
Wash and dry the pears well. Remove the skin from them, remove the middle and the stalk. Cut the pears into halves.
Take a baking sheet, cover it with baking parchment and a little grease with butter. Put pears on parchment, sprinkle with powdered sugar on top. Bake them for 15-20 minutes at a temperature of 180 degrees.
Cool, then wipe through a sieve. Mashed potatoes will be an excellent addition to boiled rice porridge or cottage cheese.
Any intestinal infection is dangerous in that it can cause severe disorders in the children's body. Remember that at the beginning of the disease you should definitely call a pediatrician at home. With him, you will discuss the tactics of treating a child and understand whether special medications are needed.
A therapeutic diet will help to correct and restore the lost fluid and nutrients necessary for the growth and development of the baby.
You will learn more about the treatment of intestinal infection by watching the transmission of Dr. Komarovsky.
In fact, there are a lot of pathogens in the environment. Moreover, it can be simple microorganisms, pathogenic bacteria or viruses. Determining the cause without examination is often very difficult, since the symptoms can be almost the same. Therefore, if symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea do not go away within one to two days, be sure to consult a doctor so that he can more accurately determine the causes of the ailment and prescribe adequate treatment.
Where the roots grow from
Infection can enter our body in three ways. First of all, these are food products infected with harmful microorganisms. The second way is no less common. This is the use of water containing the pathogen. In hot weather, the blue expanse of rivers and lakes attracts us all. Swallowing water while swimming can result in a long treatment. Finally, the third way is contact-household: dirty hands and the like.
It’s unlikely that you can protect yourself from everything, so let's talk about what to do with an intestinal infection. What can I eat and how to get better soon?
First few days
At first glance, there is nothing wrong with this disease. Just think, my stomach was a little upset. Indeed, in this case, just a light diet for a couple of days is enough. However, pathogenic bacteria and viruses can cause serious digestive upsets, which in the absence of proper treatment can lead to death. That is why everyone should know how to behave with an intestinal infection, what you can eat, and what you need to refuse.
On average, doctors prescribe one to two weeks of a strict diet. The gastrointestinal tract can not be loaded, the body has thrown all the forces to fight harmful microorganisms. And remember forever that you can’t force yourself to eat with an intestinal infection. What you can eat, your body knows better than you, just give it a chance to give you a signal. Do you want to drink? That's right, at the moment this is exactly what you need.
Any doctor will prescribe a plentiful drink first. And this is necessary from the first moment, as soon as you feel bad. If an intestinal infection develops in a child, then he needs to rinse his stomach, and then give a spoonful of clean water every few minutes. This mode can provoke vomiting and cleansing the body.
What can I drink with an intestinal infection? It can be pure boiled water, a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate, a decoction of chamomile. With intestinal infections, which are accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea, the water-salt balance is disturbed. To restore it, you need to drink "Regidron". You can cook it yourself. To do this, in one liter of water dissolve 2 tablespoons of sugar, 1 tablespoon of coarse salt (if you have small, then take half the dose) and half a teaspoon of baking soda. You can not drink such a solution in large quantities, so alternate it with other drinks. For an adult, the allowable dose is 50 ml once every two hours. For a child, one spoon with the same interval is enough.
Let's get on the mend
When the first symptoms begin to recede, nausea and vomiting go away, urge to the toilet becomes less frequent, you can gradually begin to introduce food into the diet. First of all, focus on the signals of your body. Recovery is necessarily marked by the appearance of appetite. For adults, at this stage it is permissible to use liquid soups on chicken stock.
But if we are talking about what children can eat with an intestinal infection, then everything is a little more complicated. The baby's body recovers longer, so you need to maintain exposure. As soon as vomiting has stopped or become less frequent, even with ongoing diarrhea, a weak chicken broth can be administered. While this is food and drink that will support the strength of the child.
It is necessary to fix the result
If vomiting persists for more than three days, this is a signal for immediate hospitalization. This is especially important when it comes to the child. Prolonged dehydration is very dangerous for his fragile body. The doctor will evaluate the condition and tell you what you can eat for your child with an intestinal infection. Until the complete cessation of vomiting, you will have to withstand only the drinking regimen, alternately using a weak broth, a decoction of rose hips and chamomiles. In parallel, the doctor will prescribe drugs that will alleviate the condition and accelerate recovery.
Expanding the diet
On the third day for an adult and on the 4th-5th for a child, you can prepare liquid mashed potatoes for breakfast, without milk and butter. Many parents ask: is it possible with intestinal infection milk or its derivatives? Definitely not, neither an adult nor a child should drink kefir or milk until complete recovery.
The body normally coped with mashed potatoes and again sends signals that it is hungry? This is great, so you're getting better. For lunch, you can cook a little rice or oatmeal porridge in the water, and for dinner - a baked apple. Continue to drink a lot, then the toxins will leave your body faster.
Starting from the fifth day for an adult and from the seventh day for a child, doctors are allowed to gradually switch to a normal diet. However, we must not forget that while the therapeutic diet is maintained, you need to forget about fried, fatty and sweet. What can I eat with an intestinal infection at this stage? Low-fat boiled meat is introduced into the diet. The body has lost a lot of strength, and it needs protein to recover. It can be rabbit and turkey, chicken and lean beef. The addition will be the fish, or rather meatballs prepared from it, soufflé or steam cutlets.
For now, refrain from sources of coarse fiber. Most vegetables should be excluded. The only thing that doctors recommend starting to include in the diet from the second week is squash and pumpkin. They are very useful during the recovery period after an illness.
Unpleasant symptoms have long been forgotten, and life has completely returned to its previous course. However, now you still need to remember what you can eat with an intestinal infection for an adult and a child. At this stage, you can gradually include in the diet fermented milk products with a low percentage of fat content. Choose only the freshest foods, best if they are enriched with bifidobacteria. But from whole milk, including milk porridge, should abstain for now.
Return to normal diet
Each organism is individual, and therefore recovery will occur in different ways. However, on average it will take 3-4 weeks to fully switch to normal nutrition. Remember that this process should occur as smoothly as possible. You can’t introduce several new products into the diet at once, you must wait for the gastrointestinal tract to respond to what you have already eaten.
Features of the treatment of intestinal infection in children
Kids suffer from such ailments more often than adults. Moreover, if the child is more than three years old, he can adhere to the same diet as adults. Young children, up to three years old, need the mandatory supervision of a pediatrician. Usually, intestinal flu or other infections are treated on an outpatient basis, but there are times when immediate hospitalization is required.
There are some differences between the nutrition of breast-fed and breast-fed babies. Breast milk can be given little by little, in parallel with the Regidron. But among artificial mixtures, you need to choose dairy-free. Parents must remember that dehydration can develop very quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to give fluid very often, and if the body cannot absorb it due to vomiting, then saline is administered intravenously.
During the recovery period, the best nutrition for him will be breast milk. Refuse complementary foods. If the child has already been transferred to adult food, then dairy-free cereals, broths, mashed potatoes and zucchini will be useful. But fresh vegetables and fruits, juices and milk should not be given, even if the child used to eat them regularly.
What is an intestinal infection?
Intestinal infection is a collective term that means not one, but a number of diseases of an infectious nature that affect the human gastrointestinal tract. The body of an adult, as a rule, copes with intestinal infection easily, because it is distinguished by strong immunity. Children cannot cope with this type of disease on their own. According to sad statistics, almost 30% of all deaths of children under the age of 3 years are due to intestinal infection.
Diseases that cause pathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract can occur due to various viruses and bacteria. Virtually all of these pathogenic microorganisms are characterized by good resistance to stomach acid, bile. For a long time, they can live in food and in different parts of the human body. They perfectly withstand sudden changes in temperature, so it is difficult to overcome them with ordinary warm water. 5 varieties can be attributed to the group of intestinal infections:
- Staphylococcal lesion - most often diagnosed in babies of the first year of life, over time, the child’s body learns to deal with them. Staphylococci are on the skin of every person. The baby’s intestines can pass through the mother’s chest, toys, and a dummy.
- Dysentery. Helicobacter pylori is provoked by the bacterium. The pathogen very often enters the children's body with unboiled water.
- Protein infection.
- Colienteritis. Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli is provoked.
- Viral diarrhea. Compared to other infectious diseases, it is considered the easiest.
In order to identify the pathogen and begin effective treatment, doctors have to spend about 3 days. In laboratory conditions, it is possible to identify what exactly one has to deal with by placing biological material (feces of a child) in special reagents. Preventive measures include the following rules:
- drink only boiled or mineral water,
- chew all food thoroughly,
- eat only food that has gone through a good heat treatment,
- compliance with food storage rules - in the refrigerator and freezer,
- refusal of pastries and sweets with creams in the hot period,
- systematic hand washing, ensuring the required hygiene conditions in the home.
The causes of the disease
No one is safe from this pathology. With intestinal infection in children, the symptoms depend on the specific pathogen. Pathology most often occurs in the summer, just when most microorganisms are active. Bacteria enter the baby’s body through poorly processed meat, dairy products, raw vegetables and fruits. However, not in every case the ingress of pathogenic bacteria provokes the development of the disease. Human saliva contains disinfectants. With thorough chewing, bacteria can be destroyed.
Eggs can be called a separate source of infection. It is this product that causes salmonellosis, because in its raw form it may contain salmonella. A little less often, children become infected through household items - through dishes, toys, taps, pots, etc. In addition, unwashed hands, such bad habits as sucking fingers, nail biting, are a direct threat of infection.
Bacteria can get into the oral cavity, and with it into the gastrointestinal tract, through dust and air. In the summer, children can become infected when they swim in unsuitable swimming pools. Pathogens enter the body through the mouth and nose along with contaminated water.
Contact with infected people is a common cause of bowel disease. That is why patients with dysentery, rotavirus infection, and cholera are treated in the hospital of the infectious diseases departments. Additional factors that contribute to the disease are the following:
- reduced immunity
- accompanying illnesses,
- nervous tension.
How does the disease manifest
Intestinal infection in children, as a rule, manifests itself quite quickly. At the first stage, there are:
- heaviness in the stomach,
- general feeling unwell.
Subsequently, more clear and characteristic symptoms of intestinal infection begin to manifest, which include:
- vomiting - with repeated vomiting, the fluid necessary for elimination of toxins is lost,
- high temperature - more than 38ºС - is dangerous for the baby, because it can lead to generalized convulsions.
The acute stage can last from 6 to 48 hours. Then either an exacerbation of the disease occurs and the baby must be treated in stationary conditions, or, conversely, the disease subsides and the symptoms gradually subside.
Acute intestinal infections in children can cause the development of dangerous consequences:
- Dehydration. It is associated with a violation of the water-salt balance, which, in turn, entails serious malfunctions in the work of the cardiovascular and nervous system. The child’s body is especially quickly depleted without enough fluid. Dehydration can even lead to death, and therefore, noticing its signs, parents must call a doctor.
- Intoxication. Becomes a consequence of the rapid spread of infection. Harmful microorganisms very quickly enter the bloodstream, and then into other organs of the baby. Most often, intoxication affects the kidneys, liver.
Urgently call an ambulance in cases where the pathology causes such symptoms in children:
- it’s impossible to drink a child
- blue skin
- high temperature that cannot be brought down for a long time,
- blood is present in the feces or vomit,
- a rash occurs
- there is no urination for more than 5-6 hours,
- dry eyeballs or oral mucosa.
Treatment in this case must be comprehensive. It is aimed at:
- fighting bacteria
- reduction of symptomatic manifestations,
- dehydration warning.
Given these goals, doctors recommend several groups of drugs, such as antibiotics. The latter should not be used in every case. Often, antimicrobial therapy is not beneficial, but, on the contrary, with intestinal infection causes even greater irritation of the digestive system. The World Health Organization recommends the use of antibiotics in cases where:
- impurities of blood are observed in the feces,
- for a long time with giardiasis, diarrhea is observed,
- diagnosed with cholera.
Assessing the condition of a small patient, an infectious disease specialist, pediatrician or gastroenterologist can prescribe some antibiotics for food poisoning, dysentery, enterovirus infection, and diseases caused by staphylococcus. The list of drugs of this type can include: Rifaximin, Bacitracin, Neomycin, Vancomycin, etc.
If antibiotic treatment still occurred, then it is necessary to restore the positive microflora of the child's body. As the best drugs for this task are suitable: Bifistim, Biogaya, Probifor.
Sorbents are able to some extent stop the dehydration of the body, reduce gas formation, absorb toxins that poison the body. The use of Activated Carbon, Smecta, Enterosgel will be appropriate in this case.
Treating an intestinal infection rarely does without antipyretic drugs. As drugs approved for children are those made on the basis of paracetamol and ibuprofen. In addition to combating the heat itself, these drugs can reduce pain.
Often, an agent for oral rehydration is prescribed. Medicines of this type are sold in the form of powders. They need to be diluted with water and as often as possible to give them a drink. Thanks to such means, it is possible to restore the electrolyte balance and improve overall well-being. The most commonly used drugs of this type are: Regidron, Orasan, Humana Electrolyte. Antiemetic drugs are taken in cases of repeated vomiting.
Treatment of intestinal infection will not bring the desired result if normal care for a sick child is not ensured. Without fail, when detecting the first symptoms of an intestinal infection, the child should be left at home.
Since the infection seriously damages the fermentation of the gastrointestinal tract, the issue of nutrition must be approached very responsibly. During the first two days, the child should be on a diet. Older children with normal body weight can be on a very strict diet with a minimum amount of food for several days.
For a week, liquid vegetarian foods should predominate in the child’s diet. Mashed potatoes, cereals, mashed vegetables, biscuits are the main diet of the patient. All foods that can cause diarrhea, intestinal irritation, or long digestion should be strictly avoided.
Even when all the symptoms in the child have disappeared, doctors recommend following a diet at least within 7-10 days after the illness. A child’s stomach after a massive attack of bacteria is not yet ready to cope with the digestion of large amounts of heavy fatty foods.
Treatment is even more effective if it is supplemented by heavy drinking. It is with the liquid that it is possible to remove the maximum number of pathogenic bacteria from the body, restore the normal functioning of the intestine, remove toxins and bring down the temperature.
The best options for drinking are: chamomile tea, fruit drinks, compote. If fluid loss occurs at a rapid pace (severe diarrhea), you can use a special solution of the following components:
After mixing all the ingredients, you should warm the drink to a temperature of 35–36 ° C and give the child a drink in a spoon. During the entire period of the illness, the child should rest more. It is forbidden to overwork physically and mentally.
In order for the baby to recover as soon as possible, parents should consult a doctor about how to treat intestinal infection in children and how to properly care for them. In especially difficult cases, it is necessary to be treated in stationary conditions.
What is important to know about intestinal infection in children?
Intestinal infections in children can be caused by various types of viruses and bacteria. All these pathogenic microorganisms are resistant to negative environmental factors, they can for a long time maintain their activity at low temperatures outside the human body.
They live on food, household items and dirty skin of the body. It is very easy to bring an infectious agent into the gastrointestinal tract, infection occurs through the mouth. The process of treating an intestinal infection in children will take a lot of nerves in the parents and cause even more suffering for the child.
Intestinal infections are divided into the following diseases:
- Bacterial intestinal infections: salmonellosis, dysentery, escherichiosis, yersiniosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, acute intestinal infection caused by Klebsiella, clostridia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus and others.
- Viral intestinal infections that cause rotaviruses, enteroviruses, adenoviruses and others.
- Fungal intestinal infections caused by Candida fungi.
- Protozoal intestinal infections: amoebiasis, giardiasis.
Treatment of intestinal infections in children is complicated by the fact that specialists need about 3 days to accurately determine the causative agent of the disease. During this period of time, pathogenic microflora begins to show activity in the biological material collected from the patient. While the analysis is being carried out, the child receives treatment with drugs that are effective against the vast majority of pathogens.
Symptoms of intestinal infection in children are divided into local and general.
Common signs of the disease:
- intoxication: fever, headache, general weakness,
- dehydration: rare urination, dark color of urine, dry mucous membranes and skin, violation of skin turgor.
Local symptoms of intestinal infections in children:
- gastritis type: stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, loose stools,
- by type of gastroenteritis: pain in the stomach and umbilical region, vomiting, watery stool with mucus,
- by type of gastroenterocolitis: persistent abdominal pain of a spilled character, vomiting, loose stool with an admixture of blood, which does not bring relief,
- by type of colitis: pain in the lower abdomen, pain during bowel movements, loose stool with an admixture of mucus and blood, false urge to the toilet.
The severe course of the disease can cause the following complications, each of which has its own symptoms:
- neurotoxicosis: restless behavior, impaired consciousness, delusions and hallucinations, convulsive syndrome,
- circulatory disorders: low blood pressure, cyanosis of the skin, weakness of the heart,
- renal failure: pain in the lumbar region, decreased urine output or its complete absence,
- hypovolemic shock resulting from dehydration: retraction of the eyeballs, weight loss, sharpening of facial features.
How to distinguish viral intestinal infection from bacterial?
In order to make a correct diagnosis and choose an effective treatment, it is important to find out why an intestinal infection arose, what became its basis - a bacterial or viral infection?
Bacterial intestinal infections develop as a result of the ingestion of bacteria such as salmonella, dysentery bacillus, etc. You can distinguish this infection from a viral infection by the following signs: the disease begins by the type of poisoning with a simultaneous increase in body temperature from 37 to 38 °.
Viral intestinal infections are also not uncommon. Specialists distinguish 10 groups of intestinal viruses. The most common causative agents of the disease are rotaviruses and enteroviruses.
Rotavirus infection is called intestinal flu; it occurs in half of patients with viral intestinal infection. Viral infections develop acutely, such as the common cold or flu, the body temperature suddenly rises to critical levels - from 39 ° and above, the stool becomes watery and profuse, colored yellow. Therapeutic tactics for intestinal infection of viral origin is different from the treatment of the bacterial form of the disease.
What to do before the doctor arrives?
How to treat a child's intestinal infection, the doctor will tell.
Before his arrival, you can help your child in the following ways:
- Offer as much drink as possible. Even babies need to be given boiled water from their nipples to combat dehydration.
- From 6 months old, the baby can be given Enterosgel or Activated Carbon. The calculation of the dose is simple: 1 tsp. gel or 1 tablet of coal per 10 kg of the child’s weight.
- It is important not to give children any food. Food products, getting into the digestive tract irritated by the infectious process, irritate it even more and aggravate the signs of intestinal infection in a child. Only children under one year of age can still be offered breast milk if they are breast-fed.
What can not be done?
With symptoms of intestinal infection in a child, the following is prohibited:
- Give painkillers. Analgesics can smear the picture of the disease, as a result of which the doctor can make the wrong diagnosis and delay the provision of the necessary specialized care for an indefinite period.
- Give astringent or fixing drugs, for example, Loperamide or Imodium. It is impossible to stop diarrhea, as pathogens and their toxins leave the intestines with feces. If you stop diarrhea, then the bulk of the pathogenic microflora will remain in the body, exacerbating the situation.
- Do not make enemas at home.
- You can not hesitate to call a doctor and self-medicate a child. Acute intestinal infections can obscure surgical pathology, so an ambulance should be called immediately, otherwise the consequences can be sad. The younger the child, the more dangerous intestinal infection for him.
Treatment of intestinal infections in children should be carried out comprehensively, suggesting the organization of oral rehydration, symptomatic, etiotropic and pathogenetic treatment, diet therapy.
The diet in children in the treatment of intestinal infection is based on reducing the amount of food and increasing the frequency of feeding, using products in easily digestible form or artificial mixtures in infants with protective factors.
The treatment of symptoms of intestinal infection in children is based on oral rehydration of the body with special solutions of salts and glucose (Regidron, Citroglucosolan preparations). You should also pay attention to heavy drinking. If the use of a sufficient amount of liquid is not possible, the child is prescribed an infusion treatment with intravenous administration of a solution of albumin, glucose and others.
The etiotropic treatment of symptoms of intestinal infection in children is carried out using the following drugs:
- antibiotics: Gentamicin, Polymyxin,
- intestinal antiseptics: furazolidone, nalidixic acid,
- enterosorbents: Smecta, Read more about in what other cases this drug is prescribed →
- bacteriophages of specific significance: salmonella, Klebsiella, dysentery and others,
- immunoglobulin: antirotavirus and others.
Pathogenetic treatment is performed for intestinal infections in children, the symptoms of which require the use of enzyme preparations (e.g. Festal) and anti-allergic drugs (e.g. Suprastin, Loratadine).
Symptomatic treatment of intestinal infections in children includes the use of antispasmodics (e.g. Drotaverinum, No-spa) and antipyretic drugs (e.g. Paracetamol, Panadol).
After examining the doctor and prescribing all therapeutic measures aimed at eliminating the symptoms of intestinal infection in children, treatment must always be continued with proper diet therapy.
Children under one year of age who are naturally breastfed need to offer their breasts more often and give boiled water from their nipples so that the baby quickly recovers the fluid lost by the body. Children who are breast-fed, during treatment and for some period after recovery, are shown to give a low-lactose or lactose-free mixture.
Children over the age of one year should receive the most sparing digestible food, for example: mashed vegetables, vegetable and rice soups, low-fat sour-milk products, fruits and berries, cereals and cereals cooked on water, freshly squeezed juices without sugar. You also need to remember about the drinking regime: to prevent dehydration, the child needs to drink often. As a drink, you can offer boiled water, black tea, a decoction of chamomile, fruit drinks, still mineral water.
In order not to think about how to treat intestinal infection in children, you need to pay attention to the prevention of this disease. General recommendations come down to personal hygiene, the obligatory washing of hands after using the toilet and the street, the thorough processing of food products, especially the washing of fresh vegetables and fruits.
If one of the family members or the child has symptoms of intestinal infection, treatment should be carried out in a separate room where disinfection is necessary. The patient is allocated separate bedding, towels, dishes and cutlery. After each visit to the toilet, you need to use a disinfectant to handle the toilet or baby pot if the child goes into it.
Detection of signs of intestinal infection in a child is an urgent reason to see a doctor. In this case, there can be no talk of any self-medication. It is necessary to consult with a pediatrician, undergo a proper examination and receive adequate medical care.