Appendicitis

What you need to know about catarrhal appendicitis

Catarrhal appendicitis - The initial stage of inflammation of the appendix with morphological changes only in its mucous membrane. Roughly, the stage of catarrhal appendicitis lasts about 12 hours, then passes into phlegmonous appendicitis. It manifests itself as severe abdominal pain, positive symptoms of peritoneal irritation, dyspeptic disorders, fever. The diagnosis is made on the basis of a clinical examination, MSCT of the abdominal organs, diagnostic laparoscopy. For a differential diagnosis, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs, a panoramic radiography of the abdominal cavity organs are used. Treatment is only surgical - appendectomy.

Causes of catarrhal appendicitis

A point in the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of catarrhal appendicitis has not yet been set, although many theories have been developed for the occurrence of this disease: mechanical, infectious, neuroreflexive, allergic, vascular, endocrine and nutritional. According to the mechanical theory, catarrhal appendicitis occurs against the background of obstruction of the lumen of the appendix with fecal stones, parasites, lymphocytic follicles (with their hyperplasia), and tumors. Also, the overlap of the lumen of the appendix can be observed with an adhesive process in the abdominal cavity, with an inflection of the process. Due to impaired evacuation of the contents of the appendix, the pressure in it increases, local circulatory disorders, activation of the bacterial flora occur. The mucous membrane of the appendix is ​​inflamed, blood clots form in its vessels, which subsequently leads to necrosis of the intestinal wall.

The infectious theory echoes the mechanical one, since it connects the activation of the intestinal flora with the inhibition of the barrier function of the appendix amid exposure to the same mechanical factors, as well as a chronic inflammatory process in the large intestine. Neuroreflex theory indicates the leading role of disturbances in reflex activity in the pathogenesis of catarrhal appendicitis. In case of malfunctions in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, there is a spasm of the appendix arteries, their thrombosis simultaneously with the violation of the venous outflow and lymph circulation in the appendix. All this also leads to a decrease in the barrier function of the appendix and the activation of bacteria in its cavity.

Allergic theory suggests that the onset of the inflammatory process in the appendix is ​​associated with the triggering of allergic reactions of the third and fourth types (they are responsible for the autoimmune response mechanism), which significantly increases the permeability of the process wall, which facilitates the penetration of the conditionally pathogenic flora into its thickness with the development inflammatory process.

Alimentary theory calls the cause of catarrhal appendicitis an insufficient amount of fiber and dietary fiber in the diet, as well as the predominance of meat food. Because of this, the movement of food masses along the intestine is disrupted, the evacuation of the contents of the colon, including the appendix, suffers.

The least common are vascular (connects the onset of catarrhal appendicitis with systemic vasculitis affecting the vessels of the appendix) and endocrine (believes that the hormone secretin is produced in the appendix, which is a mediator of inflammation) theory. Risk factors predisposing to the development of catarrhal appendicitis include young age (12-28 years), infectious intestinal diseases (enterocolitis), pelvic inflammatory process, immune suppression, intestinal dysfunction, fecal stones and helminthiases.

Symptoms of catarrhal appendicitis

The clinical picture of catarrhal appendicitis is characterized by polymorphic manifestations, in connection with which the disease can be masked by a variety of surgical pathologies. This is due to various options for the location of the appendix relative to other organs, the initial state of the body, the presence or absence of complications. However, there are a number of symptoms that are most common with catarrhal appendicitis and allow you to suspect this disease.

Pain is the very first and most common symptom of catarrhal appendicitis. Most often, for the first time, pain occurs in the umbilical region, has a dull and aching character (very rarely - cramping). Catarrhal appendicitis is characterized by a migration of pain to different parts of the abdomen, only after 2-8 hours the epicenter of the pain syndrome moves to the right iliac region. The localization of pain in the iliac region is accompanied by increased pain. The occurrence of dagger-like pain usually indicates the progression of the process into phlegmonous appendicitis with perforation of the appendix. Irradiation is not characteristic of appendicular pain, however, the pathognomonic symptom is increased pain during coughing. It should be remembered that with an abnormal location of the appendix, the localization of pain will be atypical (in the lower back, right hypochondrium, in the pelvis).

About a third of patients report the occurrence of dry mouth, nausea and single vomiting against the background of the development of pain. Dyspeptic symptoms usually have a reflex character. Vomiting at the height of the pain can also indicate the development of phlegmonous appendicitis.

The appearance of some symptoms of catarrhal appendicitis is associated with the contact of the inflamed appendix with other organs: dysuria when the process spreads to the bladder or ureter, diarrhea with irritation of the intestinal wall. Constipation is possible at the onset of the disease, as well as with the formation of peritonitis (the presence of an inflammatory process in the peritoneum indicates a destructive appendicitis).

The general condition with catarrhal appendicitis at the beginning of the disease remains satisfactory. Possible increase in temperature to 37.0-37.5 ° C. As the disease progresses, weakness, intoxication phenomena increase. A characteristic sign of the inflammatory process is the difference between rectal and skin temperature of more than 1 ° C.

Diagnosis of catarrhal appendicitis

Of greatest importance for the diagnosis of catarrhal appendicitis is a clinical examination. Catarrhal appendicitis is characterized by the symptoms of Rowzing (increased pain when squeezing the sigmoid colon and subsequent push-like pressure in the right flank), Sitkovsky (increased pain in the position on the left side), Bartomier-Michelson (when palpating the right iliac region in the position on the left side, the soreness is significantly amplified). Confirmation of the diagnosis may require the appointment of additional research methods.

Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, an overview radiography of the abdominal organs are mainly used for differential diagnosis with another acute surgical pathology. The most informative methods for diagnosing catarrhal appendicitis are abdominal MSCT (thickening of the appendix wall, increase in its size, periappendicular inflammatory process), diagnostic laparoscopy (when the diagnosis is confirmed, the inflamed appendix is ​​removed).

Non-specific and changes in clinical analyzes. A complete blood count in the vast majority of cases reveals an inflammatory process (leukocytosis, toxic forms of leukocytes, a shift to young forms), but does not indicate its localization. In the presence of symptoms of catarrhal appendicitis in young people, a triad of laboratory signs is almost always detected: leukocytosis, an increase in the number of neutrophils, an increase in the level of C-reactive protein. In children and the elderly, this triad may not be detected.

Treatment and prognosis of catarrhal appendicitis

If catarrhal appendicitis is suspected, dynamic monitoring of the patient should be carried out in a period of not more than 6 hours. Patients with suspected inflammation of the appendix should in no case be hospitalized for observation in the gastroenterology department, but only in the surgical department. In an emergency, additional examinations are carried out, consultation of a gastroenterologist and an endoscopist, preparation for emergency surgery. In the preoperative period, correction of concomitant pathology is carried out, antibiotics are introduced for prophylactic purposes.

Surgery can be performed by laparotomic or laparoscopic access, as well as transluminally (through an incision in the stomach or vagina). Laparoscopic appendectomy is the most modern and safe treatment for catarrhal appendicitis. In this case, the removal of the appendix is ​​made through small punctures in the anterior abdominal wall. Laparoscopic surgery has virtually no complications, is well tolerated by patients, and provides quick recovery after surgery.

In some cases (with severe concomitant pathology, abnormal location of the appendix), laparoscopic surgery is contraindicated for the patient. In this situation, an extended surgical intervention (open appendectomy) is performed, the location of the incision in this case corresponds to the localization of the appendix.

The prognosis of catarrhal appendicitis is usually favorable, since this clinical form is characterized by the absence of serious complications and indicates the timely visit of the patient to the clinic. Typically, detection of catarrhal appendicitis leads to rapid recovery after surgery. Since the pathogenesis of catarrhal appendicitis is not fully understood, specific prevention measures have not been developed.

Causes of the disease

The appendix is ​​inflamed due to the action of bacteria. In normal condition, they do not have a negative effect - protects the mucous membrane. An etiopathogenetic factor can weaken the protective function. For example:

  • Clogging of the lumen of the process. In it there is a constant formation of mucus. When the lumen of the appendix closes, the fluid does not go away, but accumulates. Stretching of the process occurs and therefore the mucous membrane is damaged.
  • Blood flow changes. When clogging of the arteries occurs, the appendix does not have enough nutrition, the protective function decreases.
  • Irrational food. In order for the intestinal walls to contract, vegetables and fruits are needed. With a shortage, stool stagnates, which takes on a stone appearance, clogs the lumen.

  • Allergy.
  • Increased tendency to change stool. Frequent constipation does not promote feces, they fall into the appendix.

The mechanism of development of appendicitis:

  • The tissues of the appendix swell and increase in size,
  • Toxic substances irritate the peritoneum,
  • Intestinal disruption
  • Toxic substances penetrate the bloodstream, the temperature rises.

Types of Appendicitis

There are types of disease:

  1. Catarrhal. Duration - 6 hours from the onset of symptoms. The development in the mucous membrane of the appendix.
  2. Phlegmonous. It spreads along the wall of the process. It lasts up to a day from the onset of symptoms. The lumen of the appendix is ​​filled with pus. There is a need to study the micropreparation of the walls of the process using a microscope.
  3. Gangrenous. The process is deadened. The stage lasts three days. If the patient does not follow the doctor's recommendations, there is a high probability that secondary appendicitis will develop.
  4. Perforated. A species that can destroy the walls of the process. Thanks to this, a disease called peritonitis develops that threatens a person’s life.

Secondary catarrhal appendicitis

In cases where the appendix is ​​inflamed not because of its direct primary damage, but as a result of the transition of the process from other internal organs, they speak of secondary catarrhal appendicitis.

This may result in:

Crohn's disease (terminal ileitis)

Acute adnexitis and piosalpinges,

Peritonitis of any origin.

Secondary catarrhal appendicitis is always a finding during an operation that is performed for an underlying disease. Such inflammation of the appendix does not pose any danger, since it passes on its own as the inflammation of the peritoneum and causal organ subsides.

Is an operation necessary?

The presence of signs of acute appendicitis, even if in doubt about the correctness of this diagnosis, is an indication for surgical treatment. In the classic version, an appendectomy (removal of an inflamed appendix) is performed. Do not hesitate or completely refuse surgical treatment. After all, clinically appendicitis can manifest itself as catarrhal, but in the vermiform appendix there can already be destructive changes. In this case, it threatens with serious complications and consequences not only for health, but also for the patient’s life. Therefore, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis involves surgical treatment in an emergency.

In the literature and everyday life, cases are described when it was possible to avoid surgical treatment in patients with obvious signs of acute appendicitis. But this is not a reason for refusing to intervene. The risk of surgery and possible consequences is simply incomparable. The exception is cases of secondary catarrhal appendicitis, in which removal of the appendix is ​​not required.

Article author: Volkov Dmitry Sergeevich | c. m. surgeon, phlebologist

Education: Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry (1996). In 2003, he received a diploma from the educational and scientific medical center for managing the affairs of the President of the Russian Federation.

Symptoms of the disease

Inflammation begins quickly, the symptoms are pronounced. There are cases when the cause of the origin is unclear, the symptoms of this disease are similar to other pathologies. A person with complaints should consult a doctor.

Painful sensations and actions that contribute to their strengthening:

  • In the initial stage, a person cannot determine the localization of pain, because it spreads throughout the abdomen.
  • After 5 hours, pain in the lower abdomen is greater. First stitching, then a painful feeling arises constantly.
  • As the inflammatory process intensifies, the intensity of pain increases. When pus occurs, it becomes strong. It disappears when a person lies down.
  • If the pain lasts a long time, it is better to call an ambulance.

The intensification of pain occurs during coughing, running, jumping.

Other symptoms

The following symptoms are characteristic:

  1. Change of stool. It appears exactly in half of the people. Constipation occurs due to a decrease in intestinal contractions, stool stagnates. On the contrary, diarrhea may occur with inflammation of the appendix due to an increase in contractions.
  2. The abdominal muscles are tense. On palpation, the right will be denser than the left.
  3. Decreased appetite.
  4. Fever. The temperature reaches 37.8 degrees, with the acute stage - 38.

A bit of anatomy

Appendicitis in medical terminology from the Latin word "appendicitis" is called inflammation of the appendix - the appendage of the cecum, the so-called appendix. The cecum immediately follows the small intestine; this is the initial part of the colon. It is located in the right iliac fossa, around it there is a peritoneum on all sides.Its dimensions vary - length from 40 to 80 mm, width from 55 to 110 mm.

The form of the cecum is bag-shaped, from the medial surface of which a narrow tubular formation departs - the appendix. The gaps of the cecum and appendix are connected, in this place there is a flap in the form of a fold. This is a rudimentary organ; over the long years of evolution, it has lost all the basic digestive functions, but still it performs some secondary functions - hormonal, protective, secretory.

Interesting fact! The average length of the appendix ranges from 100 mm, but doctors have known cases of removal of the appendix of the caecum up to 235 mm long. A newborn baby has a length of 40-50 mm, in twelve months it reaches 70 mm. Width - within 5-10 mm.

Possible options for the location of the appendix in humans:

  • descending - the appendage of the cecum descends into the small pelvis, is adjacent to the bladder, female organs and possible hernias,
  • front - its walls are in contact with the abdominal front wall and the back, which is divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal,
  • external - when the process is located in the lateral right channel, the internal - among the loops of the intestine,
  • intraorgan - in the wall of the cecum.

How does it start?

Catarrhal appendicitis refers to a simple, superficial, in which leukocyte infiltration is present only in the mucous membrane of the appendix. This indicates an unexpressed inflammatory process, without signs of suppuration, destruction.

Attention! The main symptom of the onset of the disease is pain, the localization of which is initially located in the epigastric region, but pain in the abdomen is a symptom of many diseases. For this reason, catarrhal (or simple) appendicitis cannot be diagnosed very quickly, but it is always the first in the list of diseases due to possible complications.

Severe or moderate pain in the umbilicus region migrates in all parts of the abdomen, but after about 2-4 hours from the onset of the first complaints it is localized in the right ileal region - in its lower part and gives off to the rectum region. Painful sensations increase significantly when trying to lie on the left side or while walking fast.
Please note that acute catarrhal appendicitis occurs more often according to statistics precisely at night and dull pains are increasing in nature. In addition to pain, dry mouth and nausea should bother you. Vomiting occurs in half the cases, and it is repeated.

Attention! Symptoms of catarrhal appendicitis may not always be consistent with the usual clinical picture. There are so-called "atypical" symptoms, so the patient should not be confused by the appointment of additional studies.

The problem of the disease is that with all the symptoms described above, the general condition of the patient does not suffer much. Body temperature does not increase or change, but slightly - up to 37.5 ° C. For a long time, the patient may not be bothered by their well-being - in this case, valuable time will be lost for a successful operation.

What to do if you suspect appendicitis?

Important! If the pain of the described symptoms appears, you should immediately call an ambulance. Even if the painful sensations ceased to be acute, this does not mean that you do not need to call emergency medical care: the subsidence of pain is a signal of the transition of the disease to a severe stage.

What can not be done before the doctor arrives? Forbidden:

  • take medication,
  • drink, eat
  • apply a hot heating pad to the sore spot.

This is important to know! Any medications make it difficult to establish the correct diagnosis, and excessive heat can break the appendix. A plastic bag with ice is allowed on the stomach.

Why arises?

Among surgical diseases in the abdominal cavity, acute appendicitis is the leader - in 90 cases out of 100, and it is the most common cause of peritonitis. If we talk about the prevalence of the disease, then per 1000 people there are about 4-5 cases. It is known that there are much more women among patients, children are also susceptible to the disease, the most dangerous age is 20-40 years.

The inflammatory process in the appendix can be formed due to:

  • improper contractions and as a result there will be stool in his cavity,
  • undigested pieces of food (e.g. nuts, seeds) blocking the passage,
  • pathogens that have fallen into the appendix,
  • intestinal infections - bacterial and viral,
  • inflammation transferred from another organ,
  • abdominal injuries.

Causes of Secondary Catarrhal Appendicitis

The case when the appendage of the cecum does not inflame on its own, and the inflammatory process passes into the appendix due to other organs, is called secondary catarrhal appendicitis. He can never be specifically diagnosed, but it can be a finding during surgery for an underlying disease.
In this case, the inflammation of the appendix is ​​harmless, passes as the inflammatory process in the peritoneum subsides. The following diseases can lead to this:

How is it treated?

The only way to cure an inflamed appendix is ​​to remove it. Even if there is the slightest doubt “appendicitis or not?”, An operation is still prescribed. Any surgical intervention is dangerous, but in this case it is a necessity if it is not possible to correctly diagnose the disease.

Reliable, one hundred percent laboratory blood data for determining the diagnosis does not exist. An indication for emergency intervention is a blood test in which characteristic changes, ultrasound, radiography, laparoscopy are observed.

There are two ways to treat (remove) the catarrhal appendix:

  • Traditional appendectomy is the most common method. This is a usual surgical procedure with a cut of the abdomen, after which there remains a longitudinal scar below the right side.
  • Laparoscopic appendectomy is a modern endoscopic operation in which removal is performed through very small punctures of the abdominal wall using a special tool.

Attention! If we compare both methods of removing the inflamed appendage of the cecum, then laparoscopy gives less blood loss, with it the risk of developing postoperative complications is minimal. The only drawback of the method is its non-proliferation in provincial medical institutions.

The prognosis of the disease is positive for early diagnosis with various methods of removal. The discharge dates from the hospital are always individual, depending on the course of the disease.

Important! Food after the operation should be taken in small portions. The diet is simple, consisting of liquid foods, soups, broths, mashed potatoes, favorite fermented milk products. Do not eat solid foods, smoked meats, pickles, fatty foods, water with gas!

The success of treatment does not depend on the method, but on the timing of the patient's visit to the doctor. It is important not only the quality of the operation, but also the correct rehabilitation after it. All prescriptions should be fully complied with, especially when it comes to diet.

Patient examination

The surgeon palpates the abdomen first. It starts on the left side, where there is no pain. The doctor may ask questions about:

  • Localization of pain
  • The time period for the appearance of pain,
  • Origin of vomiting,
  • Temperature rise
  • Chair change,
  • Meals

Establishing diagnosis

Immediately impossible to make a diagnosis. In theory, everything is simple, in practice it does not look like that. Sometimes even after examining the patient it is impossible to determine the disease. The man is left in the hospital. With increased symptoms, when there is no suspicion of other diseases, the appendix is ​​removed surgically.

It is necessary to observe in a hospital, in case of deterioration, the person will undergo surgery. There are cases when appendicitis is “masked” by other diseases. If the surgeon made an incision and the appendix is ​​healthy, the doctor carefully examines everything. Diseases with similar symptoms:

  • Gynecological plan associated with the inflammatory process in the uterus and ovaries, ectopic pregnancy.
  • Renal colic.
  • Inflammation of the gallbladder or pancreas.
  • YABZH and 12 duodenal ulcer.

Surgical methods

The success of the operation depends on the amount of time elapsed from the onset of symptoms. In perfect condition, it should be carried out no later than 1 hour after the surgeon determines the disease. The main stage of the operation is appendectomy. It consists in removing the appendix. There are several types:

  1. Open intervention. Simple and fast method. No special equipment required.
  2. Laparoscopic method.

Any kind is carried out using general anesthesia.

Laparoscopy with appendicitis - it is possible to use the technique to diagnose and treat the disease. The surgeon enters equipment equipped with a camera. A plus of the method is that a specialist can examine the entire affected organ. The operation is carried out in cases when:

  • A person is observed for a long time by a specialist, the presence of appendicitis is not clear,
  • Symptoms are similar to gynecological diseases,
  • Diabetes patient. One cannot observe a person, the development of complications occurs quickly,
  • Overweight person. If another method is used, the suture heals for a long time, and this can lead to suppuration,

  • The patient asks for this procedure.

What is appendicitis?

Before starting the battle for health, you need to understand what appendicitis is. Almost everyone mistakenly believes that appendicitis is an organ.

In fact, this mysterious organ is called the “appendix”, it is also called the vermiform appendix due to its corresponding shape.

Appendix is ​​an appendage of the cecum, but appendicitis is directly an inflammation of the appendix.

There are two types of appendicitis:

A chronic type of inflammation of appendicitis is quite rare and is accompanied by periodically occurring pains. In addition, this type of appendicitis has long been questioned in medicine.

Acute appendicitis is quite common in patients, each stage is well studied:

  • catarrhal - the first 6 hours,
  • phlegmonous - the period from the previous stage to the end of the first day,
  • gangrenous - period: from the previous stage to the end of three days,
  • perforation of the appendix - in other words, its rupture with the subsequent release of all contents directly into the abdominal cavity. It comes if measures are not taken during the previous three stages. As a rule, peritonitis is formed as a result.

Nevertheless, with all these horrors you can easily stop acquaintance on the theoretical part, if you study in detail the very first, catarrhal stage of inflammation of the appendix and protect yourself.

Catarrh of the appendix

In general, the term "catarrhal" characterizes any type of inflammation of the mucous membranes. Catarrhal appendicitis is also called superficial or simple.

At this stage, the process of inflammation is not expressed, and suppuration or destruction (destruction) is absent. At first glance, it does not sound scary and encouraging.

However, due to its symptoms, this stage of appendicitis inflammation is not always able to be diagnosed very quickly.

  • it all starts with pain in the abdomen. Initially, the pain wanders into different departments, and after 2 - 8 hours it settles firmly in the right iliac region. It happens more and more unequivocally: pain in this area occurs immediately without prior migration in all parts of the abdomen,
  • an increase in pain in the right abdomen when walking or when trying to lie on the left side,
  • soreness when feeling the right ileal abdomen,
  • dry mouth, nausea, irregular, most often single vomiting,
  • body temperature does not significantly differ from normal, however, it can fluctuate between 37 - 37.5 degrees,
  • tension, redness, thickening, swelling and increased vascular pattern of the appendix,
  • constipation or, conversely, diarrhea, as well as pain during urination.

If you have any of these symptoms and you suspect you have appendicitis, promptly call an ambulance.

Remember that in case of inflammation of the appendicitis while waiting for the doctor’s arrival, you should not drink, eat, take medicine on your own or apply a hot heating pad to the site of inflammation and pain.

Better wait for emergency qualified assistance.

Diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of appendicitis

In general, most of these symptoms are signs of many other diseases, which is why it is not always possible to diagnose acute catarrhal appendicitis promptly.

But do not panic - due to the prevalence of this ailment, through extensive practice, doctors have identified several win-win methods for determining acute inflammation:

  • examination by a doctor during which a specialist palpates the abdomen,
  • instrumental research. Pelvic ultrasound is the most effective method of research for the presence of inflammation of the appendix. If, nevertheless, there are difficulties with the diagnosis, then magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography is used, depending on the situation,
  • laboratory methods - help determine the intensity of the inflammatory process and monitor its condition. A series of tests are performed: effusion fluid, histological examination on a remote appendix, a general blood test, urine test, biochemical blood test.

Without a doubt, everyone wondered if there was a chance of doing without surgery if the patient had the first stage of acute inflammation of the appendix. The answer, unfortunately, is no.

The only treatment option for acute appendicitis is to remove the restless appendix.

But in the case of surgical intervention, modern medicine offers two options to choose from:

  1. traditional appendectomy - performed by cutting the abdominal cavity (front wall). The procedure is very common and affordable, of the minuses can be called a memorable, characteristic longitudinal scar below,
  2. laparoscopic appendectomy is a modern operation, during which the removal of the appendix passes through absolutely minor punctures of the same anterior abdominal wall. The advantages of this elimination of inflammation are obvious - blood loss is much less than with the traditional method, and the risks of complications after surgery are minimal. Perhaps the only drawback of this type of operation is its inaccessibility, as a rule, in all medical provincial institutions.

If the appeal to the doctor and medical intervention were performed in the early stages of inflammation, then the outcome is always positive.

But do not forget that even if the early dates for seeking medical help and a well-conducted operation were observed, incorrect rehabilitation after appendectomy can give complications.

The most important rule for this period should be competent compliance with all medical prescriptions, one of the main ones is a correct diet. Eating after surgery is necessary in small portions.

Nutrition itself is simple, with a predominance of liquid and puree foods. Sour milk products are also allowed.

Smoked, fried, salted, fatty and generally solid foods, as well as carbonated drinks, should be a strict taboo for the rehabilitation period after appendicitis is removed.

As you can see, the first stage of acute inflammation of the appendix is ​​not so scary in case of timely medical attention and proper rehabilitation.

Disease complications

Possible complications with untimely treatment:

  • Appendicular infiltrate.In case of a delayed operation, pain, fever up to 37 degrees appear.
  • Pus in the abdomen. A person is tormented by severe pain, fever. Surgically treated by autopsy.
  • Peritonitis. Severe stage when pus enters the stomach. Without proper treatment, death is possible. It is treated by the appointment of antibacterial agents and surgical intervention.
  • Pilephlebitis. Rare form, but dangerous. It is associated with the entry of pus into the veins, blood clots form. For treatment, drugs with an antibacterial effect are prescribed.

Occurrence during pregnancy

It is easier, the symptoms are less pronounced. But the specialist doubts, because the symptoms can speak of fetal pathologies. Investigated using ultrasound. An operation is performed for treatment. Without it, a high risk of losing a child and a fatal outcome for a future mother. Surgery is carried out by laparoscopic method.

Features of the appearance in childhood

In children from birth to three years old, the disease has several features:

  1. Children cannot explain where it hurts.
  2. The appendix is ​​not located as in adults.
  3. The child’s mood disappears, he becomes moody.
  4. Sleep disturbance occurs, the baby does not sleep all night.
  5. Vomiting is repeated frequently (6 times a day).
  6. The fever rises to 39 degrees.

It’s difficult to make a diagnosis. The specialist most often doubts. The child must remain in the hospital for observation.

Prevention methods

To prevent the disease should:

  • Pay attention to proper nutrition. The diet should consist of a sufficient amount of nutrients. They are found in fruits, vegetables, dairy products.
  • Wash hands after using the toilet, before eating.
  • Wash products thoroughly before use.
  • Treat infectious diseases and inflammation on time.

Timely assistance is the key to a favorable outcome of all diseases. The sooner the operation will be done in the presence of appendicitis, the better. They return to their usual labor and physical activities a month after the removal of the appendix.

What happens in the body

Retrocecal appendicitis or its catarrhal form is an acute inflammation of the appendix. This organ looks like a process on the cecum, which is located in the right ileal region.

Also, inflammation can not do without the rapid multiplication of microorganisms, among which may be staphylococcus, E. coli and other representatives of microbes.

If the patient is diagnosed with destructive appendicitis, this indicates rotting of the intestinal walls and necrosis of the lining tissues. This form is the last stage of the disease and requires immediate medical attention. However, like any other form of inflammation of the appendix.

Surgical intervention

Many patients are interested in the question of whether surgery is needed at the initial stage of the disease. If the diagnosis is confirmed, and there is inflammation of the appendix in the body, surgery is mandatory. Retrocecal appendicitis responds well to surgical treatment, this form rarely gives complications.

Most often, with an appendectomy, general anesthesia is used. If laparoscopy is performed, local anesthesia is performed. Each type of operation has its drawbacks and advantages, so the decision is made based on the clinical case.

Intervention is the excision of the appendix with its subsequent removal from the peritoneum. The cecum and all cut tissues are sutured. After standard appendectomy, a longitudinal suture remains in the right iliac region. If the operation was performed by the laparoscopic method, 3 small sutures are formed on the abdomen, which after healing will be completely invisible.

Rehabilitation

After removing the appendix, you should eat properly. You must adhere to a diet that implies table number 5. Such food completely excludes all gas-forming products, as well as heavy indigestible food.

The bias should be done on cereals, cereals, soups on a secondary broth. On the first day after surgery, you can only water, the next day it is allowed to gradually include liquid food, then the patient completely switches to the desired diet.

How to reduce the risks of complications during the rehabilitation period:

Watch the video: Acute Appendicitis - Histopathology (February 2020).