Chronic subatrophic pharyngitis is a protracted sluggish disease localized in the pharyngeal mucosa.
Subatrophic pharyngitis - chronic inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa
There are many reasons for the development of the disease, but they can be divided into several groups:
- Physico-chemical effects: coal dust, harmful metal emissions, dry hot air, prolonged speech activity. The disease affects workers in heavy industry enterprises, welders, miners, and teachers.
- Gastrointestinal diseases - atrophic pharyngitis provoke chronic gastritis, esophagitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the esophagus), pancreatitis, intestinal dysbiosis.
- Disorders from the nervous and endocrine systems - hyperthyroidism, depression, increased anxiety, neuralgia of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerve.
- Autoimmune diseases - Sjögren’s disease, nasopharyngeal scleroma.
- Other causes: anemia, diabetes mellitus, old age, congenital dysfunction of the salivary glands, oncological processes in the larynx.
Symptoms of atrophic pharyngitis are diverse and will depend on the true cause of the disease. Most often, a person feels dry mouth, burning, an unpleasant lump in the throat.
With violations of the endocrine system with hyperthyroidism, there is discomfort in the throat, a feeling of constriction.
Concomitant signs suggest hyperthyroidism: hand shake, weight loss, aggressiveness, sweating. The nervous system will manifest itself with so-called paresthesias - an altered sensitivity of nerve endings and subjective complaints.
A person is able to feel a whole bunch of various signs - burning, goosebumps, itching, a lump in the throat, numbness, stitching pains. Symptoms will depend on the activity of the nervous system and the imagination of the patient himself.
More information on how to treat chronic pharyngitis can be found in the video:
Changes in the nervous system may occur in the following circumstances:
- Prolonged stress at work, for example, when delivering an urgent order or personal conflicts at work.
- An acute traumatic situation - the death of a close relative or friend, loss of work. In women, a miscarriage or abortion is often a traumatic factor.
- With a severe cold, inflammation of the vagus, glossopharyngeal or trigeminal nerve may begin.
Diseases of the nervous system are dangerous in Russia, since there is no culture of seeking help from a psychotherapist or psychiatrist. The patient will be sent repeatedly for psychotherapeutic help, but only a few get to the right doctor, and a person will not stop coming to the otolaryngologist.
Autoimmune diseases, such as Sjogren's disease, nasopharyngeal scleroma, are accompanied by complete atrophy of the pharyngeal mucosa.
Symptoms of Subatrophic Pharyngitis
Sjogren’s disease is a serious disease involving the salivary glands in the pathological process and connective tissue damage. The onset of the disease occurs more often in the menopause in women, but representatives of the stronger sex can also get sick. A person develops a peculiar set of symptoms called xerostomia or “dry mouth”: dry mouth, tongue, “jams” in the corners of the mouth appear, difficulty swallowing food in advanced cases. Diagnosing Sjogren's disease is not particularly difficult, since the complaints will be specific. The patient complains of weakness, drowsiness, dry mouth and eyes, frequent conjunctivitis and "sand" in the eyes, in women itching and dryness in the vagina. There are also disorders of the kidneys, respiratory and digestive systems with the formation of chronic diseases: gastritis, pancreatitis, glomerulonephritis and chronic bronchitis.
Scleroma of the nasopharynx is a chronic disease that causes Frisch-Volkovich bacillus. A serious illness both with the course and in the psychological aspect. Complaints grow gradually and often scleroma is detected already in the advanced stage of the disease. A person has a dry mouth and nasal passages, dry mucopurulent crusts form. Then, small nodules of gray color are formed in the thickness of the mucosa, which do not absorb, but turn into scar tissue. Among the complaints there is a lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing and breathing. The disease is difficult to treat, and therapy is aimed at facilitating a person’s life, since complete remission is almost impossible.
Anemia and diabetes mellitus also cause dry mouth mucosa and gradual atrophy of the mucosa. In old age, due to the involution of all organs and systems, the salivary glands stop wetting the mouth, the mucous membrane of the pharynx dries and undergoes atrophic processes. Therefore, old people often complain about the lack of saliva, they can not swallow a large pill without washing it with water.
To identify the source of the problem, a person must undergo a wide range of examinations:
- General blood test - allows you to identify inflammatory, allergic processes in the body. KLA is indispensable in the diagnosis of anemia, helps in the differentiation of viral and bacterial infections.
- Urinalysis - will show the level of protein, sugar and specific gravity. This is necessary to diagnose diabetes and problems with the urinary system.
- Biochemical blood test - identify problems with the digestive tract. An increase in bilirubin indicates liver disease, a high level of amylase occurs with inflammation of the pancreas. An increase in creatinine requires a kidney examination, an increase in ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase will indicate the presence of problems with the gallbladder.
- Fibrogastroduodenoscopy is an examination of the stomach, which is often afraid of people familiar with it only from friends' stories. In fact, the examination is unpleasant, but painless. It is required to come on an empty stomach and swallow the probe - with it, the doctor examines the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Chronic gastritis is one of the most common causes of atrophic pharyngitis.
- Ultrasound of the internal organs is a painless procedure that can reliably detect diseases of the liver, pancreas and other vital organs.
- X-ray of the esophagus and stomach with contrast - the examination is painless, but a significant minus is the high radiation exposure, because several radiological images are taken. This study reveals the functional activity of the stomach and helps to detect a hernia of the esophagus, which cannot be detected with FGS.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland is a necessary procedure for identifying nodes and hypertrophy (enlargement) of the organ. It is carried out after examination by the endocrinologist. If necessary, a person passes tests for thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine, thyroxine and antibodies to the gland.
- X-ray of the skull - allows you to exclude a brain tumor, which can also cause paresthesia.
- Tomographic examination of the larynx to exclude neoplasms.
- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the brain and neck are high-precision methods that make it possible to exclude oncological processes with a 100% guarantee.
Drug treatment of pathology
It is very difficult to treat an ailment, so the doctor determines the therapy!
Treatment of atrophic pharyngitis should be comprehensive - they have a local effect and treat the underlying disease.
Local treatment includes lubrication and irrigation of the pharynx with various drugs, we will analyze the most effective:
- Strepsils Plus - a red spray with a specific smell. Used for exacerbation of atrophic pharyngitis, quickly removes pain and destroys pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Minus - do not use in patients with an allergy to lidocaine.
- Vinylinum is a balm with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects. It is applied 2 times a day to the tonsils and the back of the throat for a week. With atrophic pharyngitis caused by gastritis or esophagitis, you can also take orally in half or a teaspoon at night. Quickly stops inflammation of the pharynx and stomach. Less - it is extremely unpleasant in taste and in people with a high vomiting reflex it can cause nausea and the urge to vomit.
- Various lozenges Doctor IOM, Septolete, Strepsils, Sage and Eucalyptus - make a person feel better, having a slight anti-inflammatory effect.
- Rinsing with various herbs: chamomile, calendula - have a good antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect. There are no disadvantages and you can use it even for pregnant women.
Important! We eat foods that do not injure sore throat tissue
Includes all drug therapy aimed at the source of the problem:
- With gastrointestinal diseases, especially with exacerbation of gastritis, pancreatitis Almagel showed itself well - the drug has an analgesic effect, envelops the wall of the esophagus and stomach, reduces the aggressive effect of hydrochloric acid, and relieves inflammation. The patient feels the action within a few minutes after administration. Apply a scoop 3p / day half an hour before meals.
- Omeprazole is a unique drug that can protect the stomach from aggressive substances (for example, drugs), but its mechanism of work is not fully understood. It is able to reduce the release of hydrochloric acid and the total secretion of the stomach, providing a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.
- Fans of spicy and fatty foods suffering from pancreatitis will come to the aid of Pancreatinum. Take TB 15 minutes before meals in the acute period of about a month, then use before a plentiful treat - the drug reduces the load on the pancreas, as it is a synthetic analogue of its enzyme.
The most important thing in the treatment of subatrophic pharyngitis is dieting. You can not drink coffee, strong drinks, irritating the mucous membrane of the dish. These include dishes with a lot of spices and seasonings, smoked and spicy food, nuts. During remissions, it is desirable to lubricate the mucosa with olive or peach oil, you can also instill them through the nose.
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Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis
About the presence of worms says ODOR from the mouth! Once a day, drink water with a drop.
In adults, such a disease can develop for the following reasons, with a combination of several of them:
At catarrhal the form of pharyngitis or the initial form, the patient develops edema, the vessels of the mucous membrane of the larynx dilate, a lump in the throat is felt, constant perspiration, dryness and burning. There is hyperemia of the mucosa, the patient often has to cough up due to accumulation of mucus on the back of the pharynx. Coughing is often in the morning, from time to time it is combined with vomiting and nausea. With pharyngoscopy, the doctor sees viscous mucus, a certain part of the enlarged follicles. This type of ailment often develops in those people whose profession is associated with work in hazardous industries. Also, the disease is characteristic of specific smokers and drunkards.
Gastritis and pharyngitis
To strengthen the body, namely nonspecific immunity, esberitox, an extract of echinacea, is prescribed. It is also recommended to increase immunity using the product bronchomunal or ribomunil. During an exacerbation, warming compresses on the neck, special foot baths, steam inhalations are recommended. In the comprehensive treatment, homeopathic remedies are used - lymphomyozot, tonsilotren.
Can the throat hurt from the stomach?
The throat can be sore for various reasons, both in diseases of the respiratory tract and in pain in the stomach. Therefore, in order to get the right treatment, you should consult a doctor who will conduct the necessary diagnostic examination and make an accurate diagnosis.
Treatment of chronic pharyngitis
Acquired pharyngitis and its symptoms are determined by an otolaryngol doctor using pharyngoscopy. When examining the larynx, the posterior wall looks thinned and dry (in the case of atrophic pharyngitis), enlarged lymphoid accumulations are visible, as well as hyperemia (with hypertrophic and catarrhal form).
8) Hardening is an effective way of prevention. Both general and local hardening are recommended. Rinse the larynx with the substance of sea salt, starting at a temperature of 37 ° C, evenly bringing it to 18 °.
In adults, autoimmune reactions, heart damage, kidney and even the brain. In almost all cases, the occurrence of acquired pharyngitis can be prevented by timely and proper treatment of the acute phase of the disease. An experienced doctor will prescribe a suitable treatment, which will avoid the disease and severe complications after it.
For the purpose of prevention, other diseases are healed. Identification of dysbiosis, pancreatitis, gastritis. reflux esophagitis, diabetes mellitus. osteochondrosis and their successful healing will help to overcome acquired pharyngitis. In addition, the following is recommended:
During atrophic acquired pharyngitis occurs progressive sclerosis of the mucous membrane, also the lymph apparatus. This is the final step of the ailment, in which the symptoms are more pronounced. Mucus in the throat becomes viscous, it is difficult to separate, quite often dense crusts appear. Unhealthy feel a foreign body in the throat. In some cases, when coughing, the peels come out in the form of fragments. Unhealthy worries dry cough. tickle and rawness in the throat. sleep becomes hard due to coughing. The patient's voice is rapidly tired.
Having undergone illness on the legs, neglecting constant healing, patients suffer from acute pharyngitis and acquire an acquired form of this disease.
9) Relax in sanatoriums with a wet and warm climate. Physiotherapy, mud therapy, inhalation in this case are very relevant and effective.
The treatment of probable foci of infection, gastrointestinal diseases and endocrine diseases is also carried out. Doctors prescribe strengthening procedures, such as massage, physiotherapy, immunomodulators.
From time to time, such a diagnosis is made in conjunction with sinusitis or acquired tonsillitis. Distinguish pharyngitis from sore throat. only a doctor will be able to sinusitis or laryngitis. In each individual case of healing, personal.
illiterate treatment of acute pharyngitis.
So as not to exacerbate the acquired form of the disease, it is advised to remove the harmful causes. Alcohol, smoking, stay in a dusty room, excessive tension of the larynx and ligaments should be excluded.
It is recommended to lubricate the pharynx with Lugol's substance on glycerin. During an exacerbation of the disease, warm rinses with furatsilin, propolis, a substance of salt, soda and iodine are recommended. How often to rinse the larynx, the doctor will answer for you.
Symptoms of the disease in the acquired form are more lubricated. If during an exacerbation cough, sore throat, sore, fever, feels, increase lymph nodes under the neck. then with acquired pharyngitis, the symptoms are not so pronounced. Depending on the type of pharyngitis, appropriate signs appear in adults and babies.
For a successful cure during acute pharyngitis, a warm drink is recommended, sparing nutrition with the absence of acidic, hot and spicy dishes. If the acquired form of the disease does not respond to therapy for a long time, laser moxibustion is used, in some cases, removal of the tonsils is recommended.
In addition to the lack of healing of the acute form of pharyngitis, acquired one develops as a result of alcohol abuse, such a bad habit as smoking, due to air pollution and excessive load on the larynx and ligaments.
The concept of pharyngitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx and lymphoid tissue develops as a result of exposure to infection, which is caused by harmful microorganisms that affect soft tissues and contribute to the development of unpleasant mucus. Inflammation of the pharynx is often accompanied by tickling, dryness, discomfort during swallowing.
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Symptoms and causes of the disease
The main manifestation of the acute form is considered pain during swallowing, which is exacerbated by the drying of the mucosa. Chronic pharyngitis causes a sensation of a lump in the throat, the patient suffers from an angry cough. In addition to infectious agents, inflammation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract can cause such causes:
- cardiovascular ailments,
- smoking and drinking alcohol
- inhalation of polluted air
- gastrointestinal tract diseases.
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Association with gastric diseases
Sore throats associated with diseases of the digestive organs occur in the morning.
Sore throats associated with digestive ailments occur mainly in the morning, can be disturbing for weeks and usually stop a few hours after the patient has got out of bed. And also the following symptoms indicate the relationship of pathologies of the upper respiratory tract and stomach:
- there are no signs of viral ailments,
- dry throat in throat
- difficulty swallowing food,
- the presence of sour taste in the mouth, often in the morning,
- cough due to throat irritation,
- belching after eating,
- pain behind the sternum
- difficulty breathing.
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Throat and cholecystitis
Chronic pharyngitis rarely manifests itself as an independent ailment, more often it is a consequence of more serious diseases, including gastrointestinal tract pathologies. Improper work of the gallbladder contributes to the release of bile in large quantities into the duodenum. The excess enters the stomach, and it contains an acidic environment. During the interaction of alkali and acid, a reaction occurs which produces carbon dioxide, which promotes the movement of fluid from the stomach into the esophagus. This leads to reflux esophagitis.
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The effect of gastritis
With gastritis, pain in the digestive organ can be given to the throat.
Pain in the stomach with gastritis can give to the throat, as the secret of the stomach contributes to its irritation, which negatively affects the mucous membrane. Throat inflammation begins. The internal organs are so interconnected that malfunctions of the digestive tract lead to pain in the throat. Atrophy of the gastric mucosa may be accompanied by depletion of the cells of the pharyngeal mucosa.
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One of the mechanisms that trigger the chronic form of pharyngitis is the ingestion of the acidic contents of the stomach into the throat during sleep in the presence of reflux and hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Aggressive gastric juice and hydrochloric acid cause damage to the mucous membrane of the throat, the formation of erosion and ulcers. To prevent the throwing of the contents of the stomach into the upper respiratory tract, it is recommended to sleep with a raised head at 30 degrees.
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It is necessary to start therapy with establishing the correct diet and lifestyle changes. It is recommended to refuse to eat acidic, spicy, salty, fried and fatty foods that contribute to the development of inflammatory processes in the mucosa. It is advisable to exclude garlic, onions, citrus fruits, sweets, chocolate, coffee, black and mint tea from the diet.
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Famotidine is a drug that reduces the production of hydrochloric acid.
As medications prescribed “Famotidine”, “Ranitidine”, Cimetidine “, which block the N-2 histamine receptors and either reduce the production of hydrochloric acid or neutralize it. Medications should be taken before meals with reflux, and with heartburn - after. The drugs of the Omez, Proton proton pump inhibitor group will help get rid of reflux symptoms. They must be taken within 2 weeks.
And also prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs to protect the gastric mucosa, prokinetics and enzymes for the establishment of digestive processes.
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One of the mechanisms that trigger the ailment can be an incorrect body position during sleep, as a result of which gastric secretion enters the throat, which causes an irritating effect on the mucous membrane. To eliminate reflux, you need to raise the head of the bed so that the head is 10-15 cm above the legs. In addition, you can not eat and drink 2 hours before going to bed in order to reduce the level of secretion of gastric juice. Tight pants, too tight belts also contribute to the development of reflux disease, so you need to wear comfortable clothes. The main preventive measure that will help avoid pharyngitis will be hardening of the body. Quitting smoking and alcohol is equally important.
Throwing the contents of the stomach back into the esophagus can cause a sore throat. This is due to the production of gastric juice, which contains hydrochloric acid, which breaks down food. Due to the alkaline environment in the esophagus, the digestive juice returns to the esophagus, which leads to irritation of the organ mucosa and gastrointestinal reflux.
When the contents of the stomach are refluxed into the esophagus, heartburn, dryness and pain begin to disturb, there is a burning sensation and a lump in the throat. Often, violations in the digestive tract occur with improper nutrition. Bad habits, a large amount of consumed fatty and pepper foods can provoke stomach reflux. Exacerbation of gastritis is manifested not only by anxiety in the abdomen, but also affects the mucous membrane of the throat.
Reflux can cause chronic inflammation of the pharynx, so the patient should consult an otolaryngologist, who in turn will prescribe treatment for both a sore throat and stomach, prescribing a therapeutic diet. Thus, the patient should limit the amount of alcohol consumed, refuse citrus products, garlic and onions. For the period of exacerbation of diseases of the digestive system, fatty dishes, pickles, chocolate and smoked products should be excluded from the patient's menu.
Strong coffee, tea are contraindicated in gastritis, doctors recommend brewing linden or chamomile. At the time of treatment and as a prophylaxis of gastrointestinal diseases, it is not recommended to eat food at night, in large portions. You should get up from the table with a feeling of slight hunger. Patients with reflux disease are advised to sleep on a raised pillow to avoid throwing stomach acid into the esophagus. It is necessary to abandon the narrow cut of trousers and belts, since they can also provoke reflux, so you should wear comfortable loose clothing.
Lump in the throat and other manifestations of gastritis
Gastroenterological diseases have various symptoms and can be manifested not only by abdominal pain. When the throat hurts and there are no signs of laryngitis or other ENT disease, you should visit a gastroenterologist, since problems with the throat can be a consequence of gastrointestinal diseases. A lump in the throat can occur for a number of the following reasons:
- stressful situations, psycho-emotional overstrain,
- thyroid inflammation,
- chronic sore throat,
- hernia of the spine, osteochondrosis,
- vegetative-vascular dystonia,
- oncological diseases.
A feeling of a coma in the throat can occur with increased body weight, with frequent coughing, colds, and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. One of these diseases is gastritis. The ailment is accompanied not only by a sensation of a coma in the throat, but also by the following symptoms:
- bad breath
- burning in the sternum,
- taste of a metal object in the mouth,
- vomiting in the morning
When the stomach begins to hurt, there is a feeling of a coma in the throat, it is important to immediately contact a medical professional. Do not engage in self-treatment and take pills, as they can hide the true problem and diagnose the disease will be difficult.
How to determine the relationship of a sore throat with a stomach?
To determine the relationship, you should analyze the symptoms.
Painful sensations in the throat can occur for various reasons, such as hypothermia, irritation of the respiratory tract with smoke or dry air, or a foreign object. Sore throat is a symptom of diseases such as laryngitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute respiratory viral disease. An allergic reaction, smoking, dental disease or neoplasms of the larynx and tongue can provoke soreness in the pharynx. Gastrointestinal diseases can also cause discomfort and sore throat.
To determine the relationship of a sore throat with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the symptoms should be analyzed. Thus, if the discomfort in the throat appears in the morning, leaves after two to three hours and appears again daily for seven or more days, this may indicate gastrointestinal reflux. It is important to rule out other symptoms that may occur with a viral infection, such as fever, cough, or sore throat. If such signs are present, then there can be no question of gastric reflux.
Do not try to make a diagnosis yourself and prescribe treatment. Doctors should deal with this, therefore, at the first signs of an ailment, the patient needs to visit a therapist who will refer to a specialist, be it a gastroenterologist or otolaryngologist. The doctor will examine the patient, collect information about the medical history, living conditions and previous illnesses. If necessary, prescribe laboratory tests and make a diagnosis based on the result.
To prevent pain in the throat that arose as a result of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, simple preventive measures should be taken.
First of all, you should lead a healthy lifestyle, in which there will be no place for alcohol and nicotine. The key to health is proper nutrition, rich in a complex of vitamins and minerals. It is necessary to abandon fried and fatty foods, to minimize the use of sweet, coffee and strong tea. Eat more fruits and vegetables, making juices and smoothies out of them. Stressful situations, a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to the development of gastritis. Therefore, you should be less nervous and exercise more.
It is important to regularly visit doctors and undergo medical examinations. This will help to identify ailments that do not have pronounced symptoms. Strong immunity is able to resist diseases. For this, it is necessary to ensure full sleep and rest, proper nutrition and include sports in the daily routine. It is possible to strengthen the immune system with the help of tempering, taking a contrast shower during water procedures.
Is it possible to cure atrophic gastritis?
Despite the fact that atrophic gastritis can provoke gastric cancer, and the disease can be completely cured only at the initial stage, treatment with modern medicine can minimize unpleasant symptoms and stop the development of the disease, after which it will take some time to restore the body.
Do not forget that the answer to the question of how to treat atrophic gastritis can only be prompted by a doctor. Do not take any drugs on your own - this can only aggravate the situation.
The disease most often develops in middle-aged men and the elderly. In women, atrophic gastritis is not very often diagnosed.
Unfortunately, the symptoms and pain at the initial stage are practically absent, so few people suspect the presence of a stomach disease until it becomes impossible to cure it.
People suffering from this disease often complain of a feeling of heaviness in the stomach that accompanies each meal, regardless of its quantity.
Most often, complaints are received about such signs:
- constant rumbling in the stomach
- smell from the mouth,
Also, such changes in the body are often recorded that, nevertheless, can be regarded as signs, and not as mandatory symptoms of gastritis:
- hypovitaminosis (a strong decrease in the amount of vitamin B12), which manifests itself in the form of headaches, indications of the tongue, anemia and yellowness of the skin,
- hormonal disbalance,
- weight loss.
Causes and diagnosis of the disease
Today, doctors distinguish 2 main causes of the appearance and development of the disease:
- Immune reasons, when the body, due to an immune malfunction, regards the mucous cells as foreign and begins to replace them with tissue,
- Bacterial causes when organs are infected by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to state exactly what causes this stomach disease, therefore, treatment is always aimed at these 2 groups.
Also, do not forget about the causes of the disease, which include frequent cauterization of the stomach with alcohol.
The main signs of the disease are obtained in a laboratory study, in particular after the use of gastroscopy and endoscopy.
Diagnosis of atrophic gastritis often consists in the use of chromogastroscopy - a method consisting of the process of staining the walls of the stomach and their subsequent examination, as well as measuring the pH of the stomach when the level of increased or decreased acidity is determined.
The most gentle and convenient method for checking for gastritis is gastropanel - a blood test for the presence of antibodies, certain proteins and hormones.
Together with the analysis of the walls of the stomach, this method will give the most complete and reliable information about the presence of the disease.
Varieties of atrophic gastritis
Antral atrophic gastritis affects the antrum of the stomach. The development of the disease, the timely treatment of which is absent, leads to deformation and narrowing of the esophagus.
The signs of this type of stomach disease include a high level of gastric juice, dyspeptic digestive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders due to achlorhydria. Gastrofibroscopy is used to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment of antral gastritis of the stomach takes place most often with the use of 2 antibiotics and antisecretory drugs, sometimes enveloping agents are added.
After getting rid of pathogenic microflora, the body recovers also with the use of medications.
Diffuse atrophic gastritis can be considered an intermediate stage between superficial and dystrophic changes in the walls of the stomach.
This type of gastritis is characterized by the absence of significant dystrophic damage.
Symptoms of a disease such as diffuse atrophic gastritis:
- deepened fossae in the mucosa,
- violation of the structure of gland cells,
- education on the walls of the mucosa.
The superficial type is the initial stage of a chronic disease with minimal damage to the mucosa. Treatment at this stage will help to completely get rid of the disease.
Superficial gastritis is diagnosed thanks to endoscopy, with the help of which the normal wall thickness, a small hypersecretion of the stomach cells and the level of degeneration of the integumentary epithelial layer are determined. The superficial appearance of the disease has no clinical symptoms.
Atrophic hyperplastic gastritis is considered one of the most dangerous varieties of the disease, it is classified as a precancerous condition.
Only after the appearance of polyps does the patient feel the following symptoms:
- pain in the solar plexus,
- abdominal pain that may give lower back,
- a sharp increase in body temperature. If you have a diagnosis of “atrophic hyperplastic gastritis” and the temperature suddenly rises, then urgently call an ambulance, because this may be evidence of internal bleeding,
- stool instability.
The main treatment is antibiotic therapy. For people with high stomach acid, the doctor also prescribes antacids.
An acute form of the disease (also called active gastritis) is an exacerbation of inflammation of the walls of the stomach.
- destruction of the integument epithelium,
- swelling of the gastric walls,
- plethora of blood vessels,
- the entry of leukocytes outside the blood vessels.
Symptoms of acute gastritis:
- nausea and vomiting,
- severe pain in the stomach
- in some cases, fainting.
When exposed to serious pathogens on the gastric mucosa, coma and death are possible.
The chronic type of gastritis (also called inactive) is characterized by prolonged and deep atrophy of the gastrointestinal cells. The disease develops in people with low acidity.
Gastrointestinal organs and endocrine glands are often involved in pathogenesis. Clinical symptoms are similar to signs of gastritis with low acidity.
The mixed type is a combination of several types of gastritis. The main factor in the appearance is considered to be infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
Mixed gastritis has the following symptoms:
- decreased appetite
- bad taste in the mouth
- weakness and dizziness.
Treatment begins after determining the types of gastritis that go into mixed.
Basic Nutrition Guidelines
Gastritis treatment will not be effective without a special diet. Reviews of its use claim that it not only reduces some symptoms, but also improves the overall immune system in women and men.
If the patient has atrophic gastritis with high acidity, then the food should contain the following vegetables: cauliflower, potatoes, carrots.
When gastritis with high acidity is prohibited:
- any pickled, pickled, salted, canned products,
- mushrooms in any form,
- high acid greens: spinach and sorrel.
The use of zucchini, pumpkin, non-acidic tomatoes, green peas in crushed form is allowed only in small quantities.
Soups are useful for any type of gastritis: both with high and low acidity (especially favorable for low).
Mashed soups from the “right” foods listed above have a very good effect. Cooking soup is better on vegetable broth or milk.
Milk soups with cereals (rice, buckwheat, etc.) or pasta are also welcome. The use of cabbage soup, borscht, okroshka, meat, fish or mushroom broth is prohibited for gastritis with low or high acidity.
In the presence of gastritis with low acidity, it is recommended to eat vegetables and some fruits, boiled cereals, sour-milk products, not too fatty soups on meat or fish broth.
You can drink juices, coffee and tea, but any alcoholic drinks, smoked and pickled products, fast food are strictly prohibited.
Dishes are best steamed and eat in small portions. Food should be taken in a warm form, too cold or hot food can provoke a decrease in the production of stomach acid.
Atrophic gastritis is an unpleasant ailment, which can be dealt with only by following all the doctor's recommendations, because proper nutrition with atrophic gastritis is the key to success.
Diets for atrophic gastritis
A special diet for atrophic gastritis is an important part of treatment. Depending on the tasks, there are 4 types of food.
With gastritis, diet No. 2 is most often prescribed, which involves nutrition with stimulation of the secretory glands. All dishes should be lightly fried, baked, stewed or boiled.
This diet for atrophic gastritis allows the use of meat and fish dishes, dairy products, omelettes, many types of vegetables.
Reviews of the diet indicate that treatment with its use is quite effective.
Diet No. 1 is prescribed for acute pain symptom in the early days of the disease and is characterized by the least load on the digestive system.
Reviews prove that, with careful observance, the diet relieves pain after the first days. The goal of nutrition is to reduce the excitability of the mucous membrane.
This diet is not suitable for people with low acidity, because it is aimed at limiting foods that stimulate mucosal receptors. You can mainly use mashed soups and dairy products.
The diet for atrophic gastritis No. 3 is used after the acute symptoms of inflammation subside. Reviews say that she copes with the restoration of the mucosa.
The diet can be used for people with low and high acidity.
Fiber-rich foods and foods that are too hot or cold are prohibited. You can eat dairy products, soups, some vegetables.
With acute enteric syndrome with intolerance to milk or other products, diet No. 4 is prescribed.
Using this diet, you can normalize the work of the stomach by relieving inflammation in the mucosa.
Treatment with diet No. 4 is often prescribed for people with low acidity. It should be eaten in fractional portions. Reviews confirm the effectiveness of the diet.
Do not forget that the doctor must prescribe the necessary diet, and self-medication can only aggravate the disease of the stomach.
Causes of gastric gastritis reflux and treatment methods
The main reasons for the appearance:
1. Improper nutrition.
How do office workers usually have lunch? Dry sandwich with greasy smoked sausage or butter, with a cup of coffee. Another option is a variety of mashed potatoes or instant noodles. And upon arrival home, many stuff their bellies with something fried, salty. It is this lifestyle that is one of the main causes of gastritis.
The mechanism is simple - dry or quickly cooked food does not contain any fiber, important for peristalsis (movement) of it through the intestines. The chyme stagnates in the duodenum, and then with the movements of a person enters the stomach. The first signs will be felt after six months of such nutrition. Only in society it is not customary to immediately consult a doctor with such symptoms, so the disease is started, and then can not be cured.
What is the connection between stress in the head and stomach in the stomach? The answer was given by neurological scientists: in the lower part of this organ there is a sphincter, the purpose of which is to pass small portions of processed food into the intestine, but not to let it back. This muscle ring is regulated by the autonomic (non-influencing brain) system.
When a person is nervous, failures in the work of this autonomous regulation occur, the sphincter randomly opens and closes. As a result, the chyme is again in the stomach, but now it is saturated with aggressive bile acids. Therefore, another reason for this disease is experience.
Direct gastritis is not genetically transmitted, but parents are able to “reward” the child with a predisposition to his development. In children, the muscles of the gastric sphincter may be poorly developed or the bile ducts may function poorly. But the disease does not develop if you adhere to a diet, lead an active lifestyle, and avoid dry snacks and stress.
4. Pathology in the duodenum.
5. Unsuccessful operations or procedures that left scars.
6. Congenital problems with the sphincter.
If the first symptoms of this pathology are identified, treatment should be started immediately. It is better not to engage in self-healing, but to go to a gastroenterologist who will prescribe the tests. According to their results, a diet, vitamins for healing the tissues of the stomach, and in the case of focal inflammation, anti-inflammatory (antihistamines) drugs will be selected. It happens that bacterial infections join reflux, then antibiotics are prescribed, but they should be approached with caution, because they can injure the stomach. If there are signs of neoplasms or peptic ulcer, then treatment is carried out surgically.
The diet for gastritis reflux consists of boiled, baked or steamed food. From the diet are completely removed:
- Fast food products.
- Carbonated drinks.
- Salt, sugar.
- Pork (as it is very fat).
- Sour sauces and fruits.
- Tea coffee.
- Boiled eggs.
- Any vegetables or fruits in their raw form (their coarse fibers can damage the stomach wounded by reflux).
- Gassing products: cabbage, beans, yeast dough.
Food is divided into 4-6 receptions, between which should not take more than three hours. Also, the diet provides for thorough chewing of foods, a complete rejection of the use of drinking during meals, warm food. If you adhere to a diet for gastritis, after a few weeks its symptoms will be less of a concern.
Treatment with folk remedies
The disease is not new, even grandmothers knew how to deal with its symptoms. Most often, the treatment took place with the help of herbs. For any prescription, everything you need can be found in a pharmacy, and a penny will cost. Remember that resorting to herbal treatment is only necessary if it is not possible to consult a doctor, and the symptoms of gastritis are not acute. Self-medication is carried out no longer than a month, if it does not bring results - contact the hospital.
Recipes of folk remedies:
1. Tincture of chamomile. Take 1 tablespoon in 300 ml of boiling water, let it brew for an hour. After that, divide the tea into 3 servings, drink throughout the day. Reflux causes severe irritation, and chamomile has a calming, disinfecting effect.
2. Syrup from dandelion juice. An unusual recipe is especially good as a prevention of gastritis. Take 25-30 pieces of yellow dandelions, rinse, dry them. Put them in a deep bowl, add 3 tablespoons of sugar, squeeze juice from the flowers. Heat the mass a little, let it brew. Strain dandelion syrup, drink a teaspoon before meals.
3. Juice from celery root. 300 g of peeled celery root, squeeze the juice. Drink half an hour before eating.
4. Herbal pharmacy fees. There are standard fees, the recipes of which were developed by nutritionists. The herbs in the composition have various properties, comprehensively mitigating the effect of reflux. They are inexpensive, effective, and using them is much safer.
Incorrectly or unscrupulously treated pharyngitis is fraught with the spread of inflammation to neighboring organs with the development of the following diseases:
- regional lymphadenitis.
It is also possible the development of systemic inflammatory diseases:
The most serious complication of atrophic chronic pharyngitis is the transition to a malignant form - cancer.
Preventive measures include:
- quitting smoking and alcohol,
- Avoid inhalation of harmful substances
- promptly and completely treat acute forms of pharyngitis, other inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx,
- treat concomitant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- refusal of spicy, hot, cold food.
How to prevent chronic pharyngitis?
We hope that, using our tips, you will get rid of such a disease as an acquired form of pharyngitis!
Pharyngitis, especially in the acquired course, is not so harmless. In small children, during the acute phase of the disease, laryngeal edema and the development of suffocation are likely.
During periods of exacerbation, the disease develops due to viruses, fungi, microbes. Staphylococci, streptococci, adenoviruses, candida, pneumococci are more vital pathogens. Only a doctor can find which microorganism has struck your larynx by appropriate tests, for example, by a smear with the definition of a pathogen.
Healing will be effective if it is prescribed based on the type of disease. With any form of acquired pharyngitis, adults are advised to abandon such bad habits as smoking and alcohol, from working in unfavorable conditions.
Nail fungus fears it like fire! If in cold water.
Table of contents:
- Subatrophic pharyngitis: a technique for treating an ailment
- Causes of the disease
- Drug treatment of pathology
- General treatment
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- Causes of Pharyngitis
- Types of Pharyngitis
- Symptoms of Pharyngitis
- Complications of Pharyngitis
- Diagnosis of pharyngitis
- Treatment of pharyngitis
- Treatment of pharyngitis with folk remedies
- Prevention of Pharyngitis
- Pharyngitis: treatment at home
- Etiology of pharyngitis
- The mechanism of the development of the disease
- The clinical picture of pharyngitis
- Diagnosis of pharyngitis
- Chronic and acute pharyngitis: treatment
- General recommendations
- Pharyngitis: medication
- Treatment of pharyngitis with folk remedies
- Pharyngitis: symptoms, treatment
- Types of disease
- Acute pharyngitis
- Chronic pharyngitis
- The main causes and factors of pharyngitis
- Signs and symptoms of pharyngitis
- Complications of the disease
- Treatment of pharyngitis
- Medicines and drugs for the treatment of pharyngitis
- Treatment of pharyngitis with folk remedies
- Features of the course of the disease and treatment of pharyngitis in children
- Features of pharyngitis in pregnant women
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The medical information published on this page is categorically not recommended for self-medication. If you feel negative changes in well-being, do not hesitate to consult an ENT specialist. All articles published on our resource are for informational and exploratory purposes. In the case of using this material or its fragment on your site, an active link to the source is required.
Source: is an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the pharynx of an acute or chronic nature. Pharyngitis is manifested by tickling, discomfort and pain in the throat.
It is customary to subdivide pharyngitis into types according to the localization of inflammation. The pharynx in humans has three sections - the nasopharynx (upper section), the oropharynx (middle section) and the larynxopharynx (lower section). But such a division in most cases will be only conditional, because with the development of acute pharyngitis, a diffuse lesion of the mucous membrane occurs. The defeat of bacterial and viral infections occurs myrrhagically and is mainly descending. If the patient develops chronic pharyngitis, then inflammation occurs in one of the above sections of the pharynx.
Causes of Pharyngitis
In general, pharyngitis in children and adults occurs due to inhalation of too cold or polluted air. Also, the manifestation of pharyngitis can be some irritation with chemicals - tobacco, alcohol, etc. The occurrence of infectious pharyngitis occurs due to exposure to microbes - streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci. It also develops under the influence of a number of viruses and fungi. Sometimes the manifestation of pharyngitis causes the spread of infection from the focus of inflammation located next to the pharynx. Often pharyngitis occurs in patients with rhinitis, sinusitis, caries.
In some cases, the development of chronic pharyngitis occurs due to the presence of a pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. This is possible with cholecystitis, gastritis, pancreatitis. Chronic catarrhal pharyngitis manifests itself as a consequence of the ingestion of the acidic contents of the stomach into the pharynx in a dream, if a person has gastroesophageal reflux disease. In this situation, it is important to initially eliminate the underlying ailment. Also, the causes of atrophic changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx are often malicious smoking.
The development of pharyngitis is often observed in people who suffer from constantly difficulty breathing through their noses. The development of pharyngitis is directly affected by constant breathing with the mouth, and the effect of vasoconstrictive drops, which drain into the throat.
Chronic pharyngitis also sometimes develops as a consequence of an allergy, as well as in patients with a variety of endocrine disorders, with diabetes mellitus, as well as heart, lung and kidney failure.
Types of Pharyngitis
Classification of chronic pharyngitis is carried out according to the nature of the changes that occur in the mucous membrane. Catarrhal (simple), atrophic (subatrophic) and hypertrophic pharyngitis are distinguished. Quite often, a combination of different types of pharyngitis takes place. In this case, a mixed form of the disease is determined.
Most often among acute pharyngitis, a catarrhal form of the disease occurs in acute respiratory viral infections. In general, about 70% of pharyngitis occurs as a result of exposure to various viruses - coronaviruses, rhinoviruses, adenovirus, influenza viruses and parainfluenza. Most often, pharyngitis develops under the influence of rhinoviruses. However, a viral infection causes only the initial development of the disease, which subsequently develops under the influence of a bacterial infection. In more rare cases, pharyngitis can also develop under the influence of other viruses.
Symptoms of Pharyngitis
In the process of developing a disease in a person, pronounced symptoms of pharyngitis are noted. This disease is characterized by marked sore throat, a feeling of constant dryness and discomfort. The patient may complain of pain during swallowing, which is most pronounced with an empty throat. Sometimes the development of pharyngitis is associated with a pronounced general malaise, an increase in body temperature. If with pharyngitis the inflammatory process of tubofaringeal rollers occurs, then the patient may feel pain in the ears. In the process of palpation of the cervical lymph nodes, the patient may feel their pain and enlargement. There is also hyperemia of the posterior pharyngeal wall and arches of the sky. However, inflammation of the tonsils, which occurs with angina, is not observed.
In chronic pharyngitis, an increase in body temperature does not occur, and the patient's general well-being does not significantly deteriorate. A person constantly feels dryness in his throat, soreness and a sensation of a lump in his throat, which causes him to constantly cough. With pharyngitis, the patient has a persistent dry cough, which differs significantly from cough with bronchitis. The constant feeling of discomfort in the chronic form of pharyngitis also causes the need to constantly swallow the mucus, which accumulates on the back of the pharynx mucus. As a result, a person becomes very irritable, cannot sleep normally and do normal activities without being distracted.
Symptoms of atrophic pharyngitis are expressed by severe dryness of the pharynx. Its mucous membrane is thinned, sometimes it is covered with dried mucus. Sometimes the injected vessels are visible on the mucosal surface. Hypertrophic pharyngitis is characterized by the presence on the back wall of the pharynx of foci of hyperplastic lymphoid tissue. Tubofaringeal ridges may also increase. With an exacerbation of the disease, hyperemia, swelling of the mucous membrane is added to these symptoms of pharyngitis.
Chronic pharyngitis in children is sometimes expressed not only by a constant dry cough, but also by the presence of wheezing. Therefore, upon examination, the doctor should clearly differentiate this condition with bronchial asthma.
Treatment of pharyngitis
If the patient is diagnosed with acute pharyngitis or a sharp exacerbation of the chronic form of the disease has occurred, and at the same time there are no expressed disorders in the general condition of the person, then in this case symptomatic treatment of pharyngitis is used. It is important that the patient followed a diet for some period without eating dishes that irritate the mucous membrane. In the acute period, you should not eat hot and very cold dishes, sour and salty foods. It is equally important to drink plenty of fluids in order to enhance the elimination of toxins from the body. At least two liters of different drinks should be drunk per day. Shown are hot foot baths, holding warming compresses that are placed on the neck in front. You can use steam inhalations produced at home, as well as drink warm milk with honey. It is very important to completely stop smoking during the illness. With uncomplicated pharyngitis, antibiotic treatment is not practiced.
Sometimes the doctor prescribes local antimicrobials, as well as antibacterial agents. With pharyngitis, an antiseptic drug is usually prescribed - it can be hexetidine, chlorhexidine, benzidamine, ambazone, etc. Local anesthetics and essential oils (tetracaine, lidocaine, menthol) are also used. Perhaps the use of drugs containing natural antiseptics, vitamins.
Antimicrobial agents are used to gargle, in the form of inhalations, insufflations, tablets and lozenges. It is important that drugs that have a wide spectrum of action against microbes and viruses are applied to the mucous membrane. However, they should not be toxic, provoking irritation and allergic reactions.
Preparations in the form of lozenges for resorption, as a rule, are prescribed for mild forms of pharyngitis. It is important to consider that most of these drugs include chlorhexidine, which is a toxic substance. Therefore, you can not allow excess doses of drugs and their uncontrolled intake. The latter is especially true for children.
Some preparations containing, for example, propolis, iodine derivatives, sulfonamides can cause allergic reactions. Medicines that contain essential oils and herbal antiseptics can also trigger allergies in some patients.
To reduce pain in the throat, rinses can be used with non-hot solutions of furacilin, a light solution of potassium permanganate. Rinsing in the acute period can be practiced every hour.
If pharyngitis occurs in humans too often, then this is direct evidence of problems with the body's defenses. Therefore, treatment of pharyngitis should in some cases include correction of immunity.
Therefore, the doctor should prescribe the optimal drug for the treatment of pharyngitis, guided by its antimicrobial activity, as well as the individual characteristics of the patient.
Etiology of pharyngitis
The vast majority of cases of both acute and chronic pharyngitis have an infectious nature. Most often, the causative agents of this disease are respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, adeno- and rhinoviruses), less often it is caused by bacteria (strepto-, staphilo- and pneumococcus), in some cases fungi become the etiological factor. Non-infectious causes of pharyngitis are allergic reactions, traumatic injuries of the pharyngeal mucosa, exposure to dust and various chemicals.
The main cause of chronic pharyngitis is the conditionally pathogenic bacterial flora of the oral cavity, which is activated under conditions of decreased local and / or general immunity.
In addition, chronic pharyngitis can also occur against the background of some somatic diseases - the most striking example is gastroesophageal reflux disease (or GERD): in this disease, acidic gastric masses are regularly thrown into the esophagus and above, up to the oral cavity. In patients, this condition is manifested by symptoms such as heartburn, belching acidic, as well as sore throat due to the irritating effect of the contents of the stomach on the mucous membrane of the pharynx.
There are frequent cases of chronic pharyngitis and as a result of constant or frequent exposure to high levels of dust in the air.
Provoking factors are:
- bad habits (smoking, alcohol),
- concomitant somatic pathology,
- endocrine disorders.
The mechanism of the development of the disease
In the acute form of pharyngitis, the infectious agent enters the pharyngeal region from the outside (typically more for viruses) or from the foci of infection present in the body (tonsillitis, caries, etc.). This form of the disease usually covers all parts of the pharynx (nasal, oral and larynx), as well as the nearby upper respiratory tract (nose, larynx, trachea).
Exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis occurs either when the body's defenses are weakened (the conditionally pathogenic flora of the oral cavity is activated), or when the disease that caused it (for example, GERD) is exacerbated. In the chronic version of the course, only one anatomical region of the pharynx is more often affected, and the neighboring sections of the respiratory tract are not involved in the process.
The clinical picture of pharyngitis
The general condition of patients with pharyngitis, as a rule, does not suffer. Body temperature may slightly increase (usually not higher than 38 C), mild malaise, drowsiness may appear.
Local symptoms are a feeling of a foreign body, discomfort in the throat, soreness and dryness in it. Later, pains appear, usually moderate or non-intense.
If there is severe swelling in the pharynx, the pain may spread to the ears or a feeling of congestion will occur.
Against the background of constant perspiration, an obsessive, dry, superficial cough appears. Over time, it becomes productive.
Since pharyngitis is an inflammation, the lymphatic system can react to it, which will manifest itself as a slight increase in the anterior cervical lymph nodes, their soreness on palpation.
In the case of a severe course of viral infection and pharyngitis in particular (with adenovirus infection, flu), intoxication symptoms can be much more pronounced, and in parallel with the symptoms of pharyngitis, there will be symptoms of damage to other organs (conjunctivitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, etc.).
As for exacerbations of chronic pharyngitis, then in this condition, patients are rarely affected. Symptoms of intoxication are practically absent, the temperature most often does not rise. There is dryness in the throat, a sensation of a coma or a foreign body that you want to cough, coughing.
- If possible, it is best to stay at home for several days, eliminating the possibility of contact with other people to the maximum (so that another infection does not build up on a weakened body).
- It is not necessary to observe bed rest at all, you just need to fully rest at night and allow yourself one day's sleep to restore strength.
- The diet should be easily digestible, rich in vitamins and minerals, soft in texture, warm food. Fried, spicy, salty in the acute period of the disease should be excluded.
- Drinking in the absence of symptoms of intoxication is not necessarily a lot, but with the existing dryness of the mucous pharynx after consuming warm milk or tea, it usually becomes easier for patients. The best drinks are green tea with lemon, ginger tea with honey, milk with honey and butter, fruit and vegetable drinks, alkaline mineral water without gas.
- Do not drink alcohol, do not smoke.
- In order to prevent the spread of infection, the patient should use an individual towel and dishes, regularly carry out wet cleaning and ventilate the room in which he is located.
There are many over-the-counter fairly safe drugs that you can use on your own when any of the symptoms of the disease appear. In the case of treatment of pharyngitis during pregnancy, a doctor’s consultation is mandatory to avoid consequences!
- If the doctor has previously prescribed you any antiviral drug, and you have not had any negative reactions to this drug, it would be nice to have it in your medicine cabinet all the time and start taking it right away, at the first sign of a viral infection. The following antiviral drugs are most often used: Groprinosin, Amizon, Ingavirin, Isoprinosine.
- Rinsing the oral cavity with antiseptic solutions (chlorhexidine, alcohol chlorophyllipt, furatsilin), of course, are important and very effective for pharyngitis. This procedure is required as often as possible - 1-2 times every hour.
- You can use sprays and lozenges that act locally and have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.Of the sprays, it is worth noting Kameton, Ingalipt, Givaleks, Tera-flu, from lollipops and lozenges - Lisobakt, Islam-mint and Isla-moos, Faringosept, Strepsils, more serious preparations - Decatilen, Trachisan.
- Surely you are wondering: “How to treat a cough with pharyngitis?” Traditional medicine offers many safe and effective plant-based syrups (Herbion, Dr. Taiss plantain syrup, Eucabal, Bronchipret), which have an expectorant effect, and preparations containing synthetic medicinal substances (Lazolvan , Ambrobene, Fluditec, ACC, Bromhexine), which are mucolytics (i.e., diluting sputum).
- To moisturize the dried mucous membrane of the pharynx, to stimulate sputum discharge, inhalation with the help of a nebulizer is very helpful. As a solution for inhalation, you can use the most harmless, but no less effective means than others - saline. In addition to it, agents containing ambroxol are often used (for the treatment of cough), and individual models of the device allow even decoctions of medicinal herbs to be used for inhalation.
Types of disease
There are three sections of the pharynx - the lower, called the laryngopharynx, the middle (oropharynx) and the upper (the so-called nasopharynx). These or other manifestations and varieties of pharyngitis depend on the location of the inflammation. However, if the disease begins with an acute period, then it is difficult to make a concrete separation of symptoms, since all three departments are affected almost simultaneously.
Infection (regardless of its nature - viral or bacterial) has a migratory nature, but more often it is descending: it descends from the nasopharynx into the larynx. This process is clearly visible by the morphological changes in the mucosa, so the otolaryngologist is very likely to determine the current localization of inflammation.
There are two main types of pharyngitis - acute and chronic.
In acute form, the disease develops rapidly. An infection provokes it, as well as contributing factors: smoking, staying in the cold, pharynx irritation, alcohol intake. You can also observe acute pharyngitis in the form of a concomitant disease with various respiratory infections and gastrointestinal disorders.
The most common viral etiology of acute pharyngitis. About a third of all cases are bacterial infections. The patient swells one or two sections of the pharynx, mucosal infiltration, desquamation of the epithelium occurs. It is important to prevent a complication of the process, since inflammation can spread to the auditory tubes.
Swelling of the follicles of the posterior pharyngeal wall and their draining provoke granular pharyngitis - a type of acute disease. In addition to a viral or bacterial pathogen, pharyngitis can also provoke a fungal infection of the mucosa. In this case, fungal pharyngitis develops. Also described are cases of allergic pharyngitis - a condition in which an allergic reaction takes the form of inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa.
As a result of damage to the mucous membrane in any part of the throat, traumatic pharyngitis can develop. The inflammatory process is a response to a prolonged or severe one-time mechanical irritation of the upper layer of the epithelium. This may be a surgical intervention or a foreign body in the throat.
A form of pharyngitis in which acute inflammation flows into an ongoing process is called chronic.
Chronic pharyngitis, in turn, is divided into hypertrophic, atrophic and catarrhal.
- Hypertrophic pharyngitis accompanied by a change in all layers of the pharyngeal mucosa, it thickens, increasing the amount of epithelium. The dense mucosa, on which blood vessels and lymph are dilated, is the main sign of hypertrophy in pharyngitis. Also, during this process, the expansion of lymphoid formations is observed, neighboring granules of lymph merge with each other, hypersecretion appears. All this happens on the back or side walls of the pharynx.
- Atrophic formon the contrary, means thinning of the mucosa. Its dryness is noted, the glands are reduced.
- Catarrhal pharyngitis diffuse venous hyperemia. At the same time, stasis of small caliber veins, perivascular infiltration and pasty of the pharyngeal mucosa can occur.
The main causes and factors of pharyngitis
The main causes of pharyngitis are considered to be prolonged inhalation of cold air (in severe frost), irritation of the pharynx with chemicals (for example, alcohol when taking alcohol), and air pollution.
Infectious etiology of the disease is observed when the body is damaged by viruses, bacteria (microbes) and fungi.
Also contributing factors are:
- violation of nasal breathing,
- adverse climate
- bad ecology,
- gastrointestinal diseases
- dental problems
- alcohol abuse
- hormonal disruptions
- intake of very cold or too hot food.
The chronic form of the disease occurs with improper treatment of the acute stage, as well as when the true cause of pharyngitis has not been established.
Provokes a chronic disease prolonged irritation of the pharynx. Repeated inflammation or expansion of the localization of the process may occur. The most obvious cause of this type of pharyngitis is various infectious diseases that occur in a chronic form, such as tuberculosis.
Signs and symptoms of pharyngitis
The most pronounced symptom with pharyngitis in acute form is pain when swallowing. This is especially felt with an empty throat, when dryness irritates the mucous membrane. There may also be fever, general weakness, perspiration. Sometimes unpleasant sensations can spread to the area of the ears.
Important: the symptoms of pharyngitis are very similar to other serious infectious ailments, so it is important to establish the etiology of the disease in time, excluding measles, scarlet fever, rubella.
In a chronic form, pharyngitis manifests itself in the form of a lump in the throat, when often there is a desire to clear the larynx and cough. All this can be accompanied by malaise, often the body temperature rises. Among the important symptoms is a cough, it always has typical symptoms: dryness, tear, special emphasis on the throat. A person is forced to constantly swallow the mucus that forms on the back of the larynx. This causes a lot of inconvenience, the quality of life and sleep is violated, irritability, nervousness appear.
Note: chronic pharyngitis rarely proceeds as an independent disease. Basically, this is only a consequence of more serious problems, for example, with the digestive tract.
It is necessary to examine the body for diseases such as cholecystitis, pancreatitis and gastritis. If they are discovered, then until complete recovery, it will be futile to fight chronic pharyngitis. Its symptoms will persist until the affected area exists in the body.
Medicines and drugs for the treatment of pharyngitis
The most commonly used tablets, lozenges and lozenges, such as Neo-Angin, Septolete, Strepsils, Hexalysis, Faringosept. Iodine-containing drugs are also prescribed: "Iodinol", "Vokadin", "Yoks." Sulfonamides are also effective: Ingalipt, Bikarmint.
For cases of advanced forms of pharyngitis, antibiotics are needed, for example, from a number of natural or synthetic penicillins, as well as cephalosporins. The latter are used if pharyngitis is sufficiently advanced, caused complications and significantly affects the patient's condition.
Antibiotics of the tetracycline series are little used today, however, they can be prescribed if the body is resistant to antibacterial drugs of other types.
The relatively new medicine “Imudon” is a polyvalent complex with lysates of fungi and bacteria that cause acute bacterial pharyngitis. For gargling, “Hexoral” is used, which has an antimicrobial and analgesic effect, which significantly reduces the degree of discomfort when swallowing.
Features of the course of the disease and treatment of pharyngitis in children
In young patients, pharyngitis is more difficult, because its diagnosis is difficult. Often, a runny nose, wheezing, and a dry, painful cough join the symptoms of the inflammatory process in the throat. Pharyngitis in children can often be confused with other diseases, for example, with bronchial asthma. It is very important to conduct a correct and timely differential diagnosis.
Important: in the treatment of the disease, it is worth considering the characteristics of the body up to 2 years of age. Such children should not be prescribed an irrigation of the throat with a spray. This can lead to spasm, which, in turn, sometimes causes respiratory arrest.
Features of pharyngitis in pregnant women
Since the treatment of pharyngitis is predominantly local, that is, drugs that are not absorbed into the bloodstream are used, there are no specific indications for the treatment of pregnant women.
However, it is worth knowing that pharyngitis during pregnancy may require antibiotic therapy, which is contraindicated in this period. In this case, the advisability of using antibiotics is determined by the doctor, correlating the benefits and effects of taking the drugs with the potential risk to the mother and fetus.
In order to prevent the body, you should take care of your immunity. It is necessary to regularly use vitamins and vitamin-containing vegetables and fruits, propolis preparations, beekeeping products.
It is useful to be near the sea, breathe iodine vapor. Gentle hardening never hurts. However, you need to start it strictly in the warm season.
Trofimova Yaroslav, medical observer
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