Emergency states

Flatulence: Causes and Treatment of Increased Gas Formation

Flatulence is an unpleasant symptom that occurs in people of different age categories. It can occur not only in patients suffering from certain chronic diseases or pathologies, but also in absolutely healthy people. This problem is a large accumulation of gas in the intestines and can be a big nuisance to a person.

Varieties of flatulence

Doctors who help patients cope with bloating, distinguish between several types of flatulence. They all have the same symptoms, but differ in origin. It is very important to correctly identify the type of problem, as this will help to effectively deal with it. Otherwise, you can only worsen the situation and develop an additional disease.

Doctors distinguish several main types of flatulence:

  1. Food (alimentary). It occurs when eating foods that provoke the formation of a large amount of gas in the intestines (all types of legumes, cabbage, radish, mushrooms, onions, bread, cereals, fruits).
  2. Digestive (digestive). This type of flatulence is the result of problems associated with the digestion of food and its evacuation (the transition from the stomach to the duodenum).
  3. Dysbiotic. The main reason for the occurrence of such a disease are imbalance of microflora. This leads to a large number of gas-forming microorganisms.
  4. Mechanical. A type of flatulence arising from the direct difficulty of evacuating accumulated gases.
  5. Dynamic (functional or psychogenic). It occurs as a result of changes in peristalsis (wave-like contraction of the walls of hollow tubular organs, which promotes the movement of their contents to the outlets).
  6. Dyscirculatory. It is formed due to problems with local blood circulation.
  7. Altitude. This type of abdominal distention is considered the rarest. Excess gas appears when climbing to a great height, where significant changes in atmospheric pressure occur.


The causes of frequent flatulence can be various factors that depend on the age of the person, the presence of pathological diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, proper nutrition, as well as the individual characteristics of the organism.

In childhood, flatulence may occur due to the following reasons:

  • various pathologies of the oral cavity (cleft palate, cleft lip, fistulous passages between the trachea and the esophagus),
  • diseases of the nose and throat, which cause difficulty breathing,
  • mistakes in the process of breastfeeding or bottle feeding,
  • violation of the rules of eating (talking while eating),
  • the use of nursing mother products that contribute to the formation of gases,
  • Lactase deficiency in the child’s body (poor digestion of milk sugar due to insufficient utilization of the enzyme),
  • aerophagy (swallowing air with frequent and prolonged crying),
  • anatomical and functional immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract.

In adults, much more causes of flatulence. All of them are caused not only by any health problems, but also by errors in food intake.

The most common causes of bloating are the following:

  • constant talking and smoking while eating,
  • the absence of several teeth or incorrectly set dentures,
  • the use of excessive amounts of foods and drinks that cause the formation of gases,
  • fast and wrong eating,
  • impaired circulation of bile acids
  • enzyme deficiency
  • problems of parietal and abdominal digestion (malabsorption and maldigestia),
  • intestinal paresis resulting from surgery,
  • difficulties associated with the promotion of food through the gastrointestinal tract,
  • intoxication syndrome,
  • various endocrine diseases
  • electrolyte disturbances,
  • excessive use of Prednisolone, Lactulose and various iron-containing medications,
  • congenital anomaly of the location or structure of the intestine,
  • peritonitis (inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity),
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • problems with local microcirculation resulting from diseases of the digestive system,
  • chronic or acute persistent stress,
  • age-related changes in blood circulation in tissues and organs,
  • premenstrual syndrome in women
  • mental and neurological diseases, accompanied by indigestion,
  • bacteria overgrowth syndrome.

Main symptoms

Very often, flatulence is accompanied by several pronounced symptoms. Doctors divide them into 3 main groups, which include many signs.

The main signs of the problem:

  • strong pain in the abdomen,
  • flatulence (excessive discharge of gases),
  • dyspeptic disorders.

Most often, patients complain of a painful symptom. When treating meteorism, there may be cramping or cutting pains in the abdomen, the intensity of which becomes much less after the discharge of gases. The degree of discomfort directly depends on the amount of gas in the intestine, as well as on individual visceral sensitivity.

In most cases, patients have dyspeptic disorders. They are accompanied by the following symptoms:

  1. Excessive belching. It prevents the ingress of gas into the digestive tract, which is swallowed in the process of talking or eating.
  2. Abdominal distention, which decreases after stooling, gas discharge or taking special medicines.
  3. Frequent alternation of constipation and diarrhea.
  4. Prolonged hiccups
  5. Rumbling in abdomen.
  6. Bouts of nausea.

Diagnostic methods

Abdominal distention is typical not only for sick people, but also for absolutely healthy people. Because of this, great difficulties arise in identifying this problem. In this case, doctors recommend to undergo various examinations and collect all the necessary historical data. As a rule, this occurs only in those cases when it is necessary to eliminate fears in gross pathology or a dangerous disease.

Doctors advise to go through the following stages of diagnosis:

  • X-ray examination of the intestine with a contrast agent,
  • eunoscopy (endoscopic method for studying the mucous membrane of the jejunum)
  • morphological study of biopsy
  • rectoromanoscopy (diagnostic method, in which a visual examination of the rectal mucosa is performed),
  • colonoscopy (a method during which the doctor checks the state of the inner surface of the colon with an endoscope),
  • elimination diet, which provides for the exclusion from the diet of foods containing large amounts of alcohols and fermentable fructooligosaccharides (milk, apples, grapes, legumes).

Treatment process

Getting rid of bloating requires complex therapy. It should include not only medication, but also measures to change lifestyle and diet. Only in this case it will be possible to achieve the desired result and cope with an unpleasant problem as quickly as possible.

The main activities that will help get rid of flatulence:

  • diet and exclusion from the daily diet, which increase gas,
  • moderate consumption of foods containing large amounts of essential and monounsaturated fats,
  • the use of adsorbents (natural products that help collect and excrete toxins, gases and harmful microorganisms),
  • the use of defoamers (drugs that help reduce the intensity of the process of formation of gases),
  • enzyme therapy,
  • taking medications that normalize the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • the use of prokinetics (drugs that increase the frequency of contractions in the small intestine and eliminate excessive gas formation),
  • the use of local antispasmodics (drugs that help eliminate pain and muscle spasms in the intestine).

Preventive actions

In order to completely get rid of flatulence and prevent its recurrence, it is necessary to perform some preventive measures. They are quite simple, but help to avoid the possibility of the formation of a large amount of gas in the intestine.

The most effective are the following measures:

  • refusal to talk while consuming any products,
  • avoiding food in a horizontal position
  • slow food that reduces the risk of aerophagia,
  • food in small portions,
  • the use of large amounts of non-carbonated liquid (in the day you need to drink from 2 to 2.5 liters of pure water),
  • strengthening the abdominal muscles by performing simple gymnastic exercises,
  • rejection of heavy physical exertion
  • avoidance of tight items of clothing and jewelry that can increase intra-abdominal pressure (various belts, belts, corsets).

Therapy in newborns

During medical research, doctors found that in 70% of cases, flatulence causes crying, refusal to eat and restless behavior of newborns. Because of this, it is important to find the right approach to treating this problem in order to avoid a negative effect on a small and fragile organism.

In babies, bloating becomes a consequence of such reasons:

  1. Immediately after birth, the baby's enzyme systems function to provide lactotrophic nutrition. Because of this, they react poorly to other foods and errors in the mother's diet.
  2. A small muscular layer of the digestive tube, which impairs peristalsis (wave-like contraction of the stomach walls, due to which the movement of food occurs).
  3. The cardial section of the stomach is significantly less developed than the pyloric.
  4. Low acidity of gastric juice.
  5. Functional dysbacteriosis.
  6. Different speed of development of the colon.
  7. High degree of permeability of the intestinal epithelium.

Parents of the baby should carefully monitor his behavior and identify the slightest deviation from the norm. On them you can accurately determine the presence of flatulence and try to get rid of it as quickly as possible.

Symptoms of a problem in newborns:

  • causeless anxiety when the abdomen comes in contact with a heat source or after eating,
  • the frequency of the negative reaction of the baby (for example, a few minutes after feeding),
  • visual abdominal distension and hardness
  • frequent crying, accompanied by tightening the legs to the abdomen,
  • lack of regular weight gain.

It is best to treat meteorism in young children with simethicone-based defoamers. They are considered the safest, since they have no negative effect on the walls of the stomach and intestines. In addition, these drugs act only in the right place and do not interfere with the work of other body systems.

In order to avoid the development of flatulence, it is necessary to apply the correct technique of feeding the child. It consists in the following:

  • when feeding from a bottle should pick up the nipple, which corresponds to the age of the baby,
  • prevent swallowing air from the nipple nose,
  • correctly apply the newborn to the breast,
  • Follow all dietary recommendations during breastfeeding.

Effective drugs

It is quite difficult to overcome flatulence, so doctors recommend using various medications. Their choice depends on the individual characteristics of the human body and the portability of a particular component. In addition, there are folk recipes that will cope well with the problem and will not cause any harm to a person.

Popular Medicines

Pharmaceutical companies that produce medicines offer patients a wide range of medicines to help cope with flatulence. All of them are sold without a prescription, which greatly simplifies the purchase process. The cost of such drugs is relatively low and depends on the components. All this makes it possible to treat them even to people with small financial capabilities.

The most popular and commonly used medicines are:

  1. Motilium. This drug is produced by a Belgian company and is produced in the form of a suspension, tablets, lozenges for sucking. All dosage forms need to be taken in view of dosages and duration of treatment. The drug accelerates intestinal peristalsis and helps to remove gases in a natural way.
  2. Unienzyme This medicine is manufactured by an Indian pharmaceutical company and is intended to improve digestion. In the role of the adsorbent is activated carbon, which helps rid the body of toxins and air bubbles. Unienzyme acts quickly and does not cause serious side effects.
  3. Bobotik. This Polish drug is available in the form of drops, therefore it is often used in therapy intended for the youngest patients. This medication is also effective in the treatment of adults, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. The active ingredient of the drug contributes to the destruction of gas bubbles and their removal in a natural way.
  4. Infacol This drug is considered one of the best. It is often prescribed for the treatment of newborns. The drug is available in the form of a suspension, and a convenient dispenser is attached to it. Simethicone (active substance) contributes to the rapid removal of gases from the intestine and prevents their re-formation.
  5. Phosphalugel. Such a drug is recommended to be used for the treatment of children, as it is produced in the form of a suspension, which has a pleasant orange flavor. It helps to remove toxins and gases from the intestines, and also reduces pain in the stomach.

Folk remedies

If you can not buy medicine, you can use the recipes of traditional medicine. All of them are based on natural components of plant origin, and are also absolutely safe for children and adults.

The most famous methods:

  1. Dill water. Seeds of this unpretentious plant are considered the best means of flatulence. They need to finely grind and pour a glass of boiling water. The liquid is infused for 20 minutes and then filtered through cheesecloth. Drink dill water need 3 times a day before meals. Children are recommended to give 1 teaspoon, and adults - 100 milliliters.
  2. Carrot seeds. Before use, they must be thoroughly dried and ground to a powder. The resulting mixture is filled with hot water and allowed to cool to room temperature. Take this tool to 1 teaspoon 3 times a day.
  3. Melissa. From the leaves of this medicinal plant is preparing a decoction. The green part is dried in the sun and placed in a container suitable for a steam bath. Then it is drawn for 20 minutes and filtered. The finished liquid is drunk 3 times a day for 1 tablespoon. This should be done a few tens of minutes after eating.
  4. Sagebrush.This useful flora copes well not only with flatulence, but also destroys harmful parasites, as well as bacteria. To make a tincture from it, it is necessary to dry the wormwood and pour boiling water over it for 12 hours. After this period of time, the liquid is filtered through cheesecloth and poured into a glass container. It is necessary to use tincture on 100 grams 3 times a day.
  5. Caraway. Not only herbs help meteorism, but also spices. The most effective of these is cumin. Its seeds are poured with hot water and infused for at least a quarter of an hour. After this, the solution is cooled and filtered. You need to drink it 2 times a day, 70 milliliters.

Flatulence is an unpleasant problem that occurs not only in patients, but also in healthy people. Because of it, pain and discomfort appear. If you approach the treatment of this disease correctly and follow all the recommendations, you can quickly get rid of the problem and prevent its recurrence.

Causes of flatulence

The causes of increased gas formation in the intestines are very diverse.

  • A frequent root cause of this pathology is a violation of the enzyme system.

The lack of enzymes causes a large amount of undigested food residues to enter the terminal parts of the digestive tract, which, in turn, activates the reactions of decay and fermentation of undigested food with the release of gases. In young children, the enzyme system is imperfect, so they often experience intestinal problems in the form of flatulence. Disorders of the enzyme system occur in adults due to unbalanced nutrition.

  • Violation of intestinal microflora

Imbalance of the colon microflora is the second most common cause of flatulence (see the symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis). Under normal conditions, the main part of the formed gases is absorbed by intestinal bacteria - they use intestinal gases for their own vital activity. Disruption of the balance between microorganisms that produce gases and bacteria that absorb them, causes flatulence (see how to treat intestinal dysbiosis).

  • Surgical intervention in the abdominal cavity

The third reason for the occurrence of flatulence is stretching of the intestinal wall due to a decrease in the motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract after undergoing surgical interventions on the abdominal cavity. Surgery almost completely leads to a violation of intestinal motility. Slowing the natural movement of food masses provokes increased fermentation and putrefaction processes, and hence increased gas production. Moreover, gases that accumulate in the lumen of the sedentary intestine cause unpleasant paroxysmal pain. Adhesions in the intestines and tumors mechanically impede the passage of food masses and thereby provoke flatulence.

Diseases such as gastritis, duodenitis, pancreatitis, hepatitis can also be accompanied by flatulence.

Food quality is a common cause of flatulence in healthy people. The first positions in the list of provocateurs of flatulence are occupied by legumes and foods rich in coarse fiber. Strongly carbonated drinks also lead to the accumulation of excess gas in the intestines. Products, the digestion of which is accompanied by active fermentation reactions (mutton) and liquids, in which their own enzymatic and fermentation reactions take place (kvass, beer) lead to flatulence.

Spasm of smooth muscles and slowing of intestinal motility are also possible against the background of nervous disorders and significant emotional overload, so these reasons can also cause meteorism.

Symptoms and classification of flatulence

Flatulence is classified according to the reasons causing it:

  • flatulence on the background of a diet rich in cellulose, as well as due to the consumption of legumes in food,
  • flatulence due to digestive disorders resulting from gastrointestinal pathology,
  • intestinal dysbiosis,
  • flatulence on the background of mechanical disturbances of peristalsis (tumors, adhesions in the small pelvis, intoxication),
  • flatulence in circulatory disorders of general and local nature,
  • neuropsychiatric disorders and psycho-emotional overload,
  • when raised to a height, when there is an expansion of gases and an increase in pressure in the intestine.

There is flatulence bloating or paroxysmal and cramping pain. Swelling and pain may be accompanied by belching, nausea, decreased appetite, delayed stools or diarrhea.

There are two options for the course of flatulence

In the first case, the main manifestations of flatulence are an increase in the volume of the abdomen due to the accumulation of gases and difficulty in discharge of accumulated gases due to spasm of the large intestine. A person at the same time feels discomfort, pain and a feeling of distention in the stomach.

The second option is characterized by regular, but enhanced discharge of gaseous products from the intestines.

This phenomenon significantly reduces the quality of life and limits the presence in society. Pain syndrome is characterized by weak severity, more worried rumbling and transfusion of the contents of the intestine, which is clearly audible even from a distance.

Flatulence is also characteristic of flatulence:

  • burning in the region of the heart
  • heart rhythm disorder
  • decrease in mood
  • sleep disorder
  • general weakness
  • headaches
  • arrhythmias

Treatment of flatulence

As a rule, treatment involves several successive stages:

  • correction of diet and diet
  • treatment of disease resulting in flatulence,
  • restoration of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract by prescribing drugs from the prokinetic group (metoclopramide, tegaserod, silansetron),
  • correction of intestinal biocenosis by prescribing biopreparations - acylact, Hilak forte, bifidumbacterin, Imoflo Rioflora (see the list of probiotics, analogs of Linex),
  • removal of gases accumulated in the intestinal lumen.

Adsorbents are widely used in the treatment of flatulence, which reduce the absorption of gases and other compounds of toxic origin, as well as contribute to the removal of gases (white clay, dimethicone, simethicone, polyphepanum, polysorb, activated carbon, Filtrum STI).

When diagnosing absolute or partial deficiency in the production of digestive enzymes, the process of digesting the main components of food is disturbed. As an auxiliary and replacement therapy, in this case, enzyme preparations are shown - pepsin, natural gastric juice, pancreatin, mezim, creon.

To reduce the painful manifestations of flatulence, antispasmodics are prescribed (drotaverine, no-spa).

In the treatment of meteorism, which arose against the background of nervous shocks and stress, sedatives and sedatives are prescribed.

Meals with flatulence

Rationalization of nutrition includes the exclusion of foods rich in coarse fiber (sorrel, cabbage, grapes, gooseberries), whole milk, legumes and products with fermentation reactions (beer, kvass, carbonated water). Meat should be consumed only in boiled form, bakery products - from wheat flour and with bran.

You should eat only compatible products. For example, the use of meat food, and then sweets leads to an increased formation of gases. At the same time, it is recommended to enrich the diet with fermented milk products, boiled vegetables and fruits, crumbly cereals, walnuts. If meteorism worries constantly, do not hide this problem and be treated with symptomatic drugs. Only a doctor can determine the prime cause of flatulence and prescribe the correct and adequate treatment.

Symptoms of flatulence

Symptoms of flatulence are manifested by the following intestinal disorders:

Pains like paroxysmal and cramping (sometimes they can give to the sternum, resemble aching heart pain, lower back, right hypochondrium),

Delayed stools, or, on the contrary, diarrhea,

The increase in the volume of the abdomen, the feeling of discomfort appearing in it,

Enhanced discharge of gases

Rumbling and play of bowel contents,

The sensation of increasing intra-abdominal pressure,

Feeling of discomfort in the epigastric region.

It has been established that symptoms of flatulence can manifest themselves in extraintestinal disorders:

From the side of the heart: violations of its rhythm and the appearance of a burning sensation in the chest,

Deterioration of mood and performance

Trouble sleeping

Bloating with flatulence

Bloating with flatulence is one of the most striking manifestations of an increase in the amount of gas in the intestine. It is impossible not to notice him, as swelling is accompanied by pain and a feeling of marked discomfort.

The abdomen increases in size due to intestinal overflow with gases. However, their discharge does not occur, since the colon is spasmodic. Therefore, intestinal distension and pressure on it from the inside is characterized by people as abdominal distension and is one of the clinical variants of the course of flatulence.

Answers to popular questions:

Is flatulence dangerous? By itself, flatulence can not pose a threat to human life. However, the danger of this pathological condition of the intestines is that it can indicate serious diseases. These are pathologies of the stomach, gallbladder, liver, intestines, oncological process is not excluded. Therefore, with frequent flatulence, which does not depend on the diet, you should consult with your doctor.

Can I drink kefir with flatulence? Most experts are inclined to believe that the use of kefir has a positive effect on the functioning of the intestine. This drink helps to normalize the balance between the microbes that inhabit it. It is especially useful in flatulence caused by dysbacteriosis. However, with increased gas formation, it is necessary to consume kefir in small quantities for a long time. The drink must be fresh (no more than three days from the date of manufacture).

What to do if meteorism began?

To understand what to do if meteorism began, it is necessary to determine the cause of it provoked. This will eliminate the increased gas formation in the intestines, restore the quality of life.

If it is established that flatulence is a consequence of irrational approach to nutrition, then the existing errors should be eliminated. It is important to eat regularly, even snacks between breakfast, lunch and dinner should be held in a relaxed atmosphere. Doctors recommend including dairy products in the diet. If their intake is regular, the metabolic activity of the microflora is normalized, the motor function of the intestine is restored.

If flatulence is the result of any disease, then efforts should be made to eliminate it. Disease treatment should be done exclusively by a specialist.

In case of lactose deficiency, it is important to maintain an appropriate diet with a low calorie content and no milk sugar.

For the time being, it is necessary to reduce the number of products containing coarse fiber, if flatulence is provoked by irritable bowel syndrome. The consultation of the psychologist and the neuropathologist is important. To reduce the pain caused by abdominal distention, you can use antispasmodics, for example, Duspatalin.

When dysbiosis assigned probiotics. This may be Linex, Rioflora Immuno, Hilak Forte, Bifidumbakterin, etc. These drugs contribute to the normalization of the intestinal microbial balance.

To save a person from the symptoms of flatulence, he can be recommended drugs belonging to the group of defoamers. They include such active substance as simethicone. It does not have side effects and has no age limit. Treatments with simethicone include: Meteospasmil, Gestid, Maalox plus, Disflatil, Espumizan.

Additional means to help alleviate the patient's condition are adsorbents. It can be: Polyphepane, preparations containing bismuth, aluminum phosphate, Activated carbon. However, the effect of activated carbon is delayed in time and very short, and other means help to slow down the passage of fecal masses through the large intestine. Together with gases, they also excrete vitamins, beneficial microflora and mineral compounds.

It is also advisable to receive pancreatic enzymes, since flatulence almost always occurs against the background of digestive disorders. Such drugs can be: Creon, Pancreatin, Pancreoflat (enzymes in combination with simethicone).

Article author: Gorshenina Elena Ivanovna | Gastroenterologist

Education: A diploma in the specialty “Medicine” was received at the Russian State Medical University. N.I. Pirogov (2005). Postgraduate Studies in Gastroenterology - educational and scientific medical center.

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