The site provides background information. Adequate diagnosis and treatment of the disease are possible under the supervision of a conscientious physician.
Nephroptosis - abnormal mobility of the kidney when it comes out of its bed and goes down into the abdominal cavity. This disease is accompanied by pain in the lower back or hypochondrium, usually on the right side. Nephroptosis is dangerous because the kidney can twist around its axis. At the same time, the blood vessels feeding the organ are clamped and stretched. This leads to inflammation and the formation of kidney stones.
Normally, the kidneys are immobile. They can shift by 1-1.5 cm with breathing and during movements. If the kidney is displaced by more than 5 cm, then it is already considered a pathology.
The prolapse of the kidney of varying degrees is quite common. Nephroptosis occurs in 1.5% of women and 0.1% of men. Most often, it is randomly diagnosed during an ultrasound scan. Only in 15% of people nephroptosis causes pain.
The average age of patients is 30-50 years, but the disease occurs in childhood. Women are 5-10 times more likely to suffer from nephroptosis. This ratio is associated with features of the female body, recurring pregnancies and addiction to diets.
Anatomy of the kidney and kidney ligaments
Kidney - The most important paired organs of the urinary system, which provide cleansing of the blood and maintaining chemical balance in the body.
The buds are bean-shaped. The average length of the body is 12 cm, width is 5-6 cm, thickness is 3.5 cm. The mass of the body is 130-200 g. Moreover, the left kidney is usually somewhat larger than the right one.
The kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity and adjoin to its back wall at the level of 11–12 thoracic and 1–2 lumbar vertebra. The kidneys are almost completely covered by the lower ribs. Normally, the right kidney is located slightly below the left, and the upper edge is adjacent to the liver. In this regard, the right kidney is displaced in 80% of cases.
The structure of the kidney. Each kidney consists of an education system of accumulation and excretion of urine. Outside, the kidney is covered with a dense capsule of fat and connective tissue. With their help, the kidney is secured inside the abdominal cavity.
For the fixation of the kidneys are responsible:
- Vascular foot consists of renal artery and renal vein. However, the vessels can stretch, therefore, do not provide reliable fixation.
- Fat capsuleconsisting of fatty tissue, protects the body from hypothermia and injury. In women, it is wider and shorter, therefore it weaker fixes the kidney.
- Kidney fascia. 2 sheets of fascia of durable connective tissue located on the front and rear surface of the kidney. They grow together at the upper pole of the kidney and pass into the fascia of the diaphragm. Thus, the kidney is in limbo. On the fascia accounts for the main burden of fixing the body.
- Abdominal ligaments. Inside, the abdominal cavity is lined with a thin membrane of connective tissue - the peritoneum. Its folds form tapes - ligaments, fixing organs in the abdominal cavity. The right kidney is retained by the renal hepatic and duodenal-renal ligaments. The left kidney is fixed pancreas-renal and splenic-renal ligaments.
- Kidney bed, formed by the diaphragm, the muscles of the abdominal wall, the mesentery of the intestines and fascia.
Causes of kidney prolapse
- The consequences of pregnancy and childbirth. After childbirth, the pressure in the abdominal cavity decreases due to the weakening of the abdominal muscles, and the kidney loses support. The more a woman has a stomach during pregnancy, the higher the risk of a kidney drop after delivery. During repeated pregnancies, the likelihood of developing the disease increases dramatically.
- Weight lifting and excessive exercise cause a strong increase in pressure in the abdominal cavity, resulting in a stretching of the fixation apparatus of the kidney (ligaments and fascias).
- Strong repeated coughing with whooping cough, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis. Cough is accompanied by tension in the muscles of the diaphragm, it goes down, shifting the abdominal organs downwards, including the kidneys.
- Injuries, falls from a height. Shocks and falls can cause damage to the integrity of the ligaments - tears are formed on them and the ligaments are lengthened. In this case, the fixation of the kidney is no longer reliable.
- Bruises and hematomas displacing the kidney. When the lumbar bruise in the pararenal tissue hematomas are formed, which displace the organ and squeeze it.
- Drastic weight loss causes thinning of the fat capsule supporting the kidney.
- Hereditary predisposition in diseases associated with weakness of the connective tissue (Ehlers Danlos syndrome, connective tissue dysplasia). With these pathologies, the ligaments are thin and easily stretched, which leads to the omission of the internal organs.
- Decreased abdominal muscle tone sedentary, hypodynamia. The weakening of the muscles leads to the fact that intra-abdominal pressure drops, the kidney leaves the renal bed and stretches the fascia.
- Long stay in the vibration zone. Vibration causes sprains and fascias.
- Long-lasting infectious diseases, leading to exhaustion - these are malignant tumors, tuberculosis, cirrhosis of the liver. Reduction of subcutaneous fatty tissue leads to a dramatic weight loss and a decrease in intra-abdominal pressure.
Degree of kidney prolapse
Depending on the course of the disease secrete three stages of nephroptosis.
- The first stage. When inhaling, the organ is displaced by 5-9 cm and the lower 1/3 of the kidney is felt under the ribs. On the exhale, she returns to the place.
Symptoms of the disease, as a rule, does not occur. But if the kidney is lowered more than 7 cm, then the fascial capsule is stretched, and dull pain occurs, radiating to the lower back. Usually they appear when the patient sits down from a lying position.
There are no changes in the urine.
Second stage In the upright position, the kidney falls below the rib line by 2/3, but when the patient lies down, she returns to the place.
Symptoms become more pronounced. During physical exertion and a change in body position, intense pains resembling renal colic occur. Relief comes when a person lies on his back.
In the urine protein and red blood cells appear. Changes associated with impaired outflow of venous blood from the kidney.
The third stage. The kidney extends below the rib line and can sink to the small pelvis.
The pains are constant, spread to the lower abdomen and radiate to the groin area. Sensations do not depend on the position of the patient’s body, but are associated with inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis).
Blood and mucus are present in the urine, which is associated with an increase in renal pressure and urine congestion in the renal pelvis.
Symptoms of kidney prolapse
Symptoms of nephroptosis are increasing gradually. In the first stage, discomfort or aching pain appears only after exercise. Over time, the kidney falls below, the disease progresses, new symptoms appear.
- Aching pains in the lower back. The lumen of the renal vessels narrows and the outflow of blood and urine from the kidney is disturbed. Edema develops. The enlarged kidney stretches the sensitive fibrous capsule, which has pain receptors.
Relief occurs if blood flow improves. This happens when a person lies on his back or on the "healthy" side.
In the first stage, discomfort or pain appears when changing poses and in an upright position.
In the second stage, after exertion, severe paroxysmal pain appears, which lasts from several minutes to several hours.
In the third stage, the edema does not decrease, so the pain is permanent.
- Pain in the abdomen, groin, genitals, thigh. When a kidney is omitted, the nerve plexuses that are nearby are irritated. The pains are sharp, cutting; they can be mistaken for an attack of appendicitis. They are so strong that a person loses the ability to walk and talk.
- Bleeding while urinating. When the vascular bundle is twisted, the outflow from the renal veins located in small cups is disturbed. The vessel wall is thinning, bursting, and the blood is mixed with urine. Urine becomes dark red.
- Digestive disorders:constipation and diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite. Disruption of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract due to reflex irritation of their nerve endings, located next to the affected kidney.
- General intoxication: weakness, fatigue, irritability, possible fever during an attack of severe pain. These are signs of intoxication, which develops due to a disruption of the kidneys and an increase in the level of toxins in the blood.
Diagnosis of nephroptosis
At the reception at the nephrologist, patient
- Collect and analyze complaints. For a correct diagnosis, it is important to clearly describe the sensations: how long the problems appeared, the nature of the pain, when and after which it appears.
- Feeling out. The kidney is palpable through the anterior abdominal wall below the rib line, as a dense, round and painful formation.
- Kidney urography - X-ray examination using a contrast agent to determine the stage of the disease. It is held in vertical and horizontal position. The study reveals the exact location of the kidney and the condition of its vessels.
- Ultrasound kidney. Ultrasound examination is not sufficiently informative. Often it is carried out only in the supine position, when the kidney returns to the place, so it may not reveal nephroptosis of I and II degree.
- Analysis of urine
- Proteinuria - the appearance of protein in the urine, more than 0.4 g / l.
- Hematuria - blood in the urine, more than 10 red blood cells in the field of view.
- Leukocytes in the urine (more than 5 in sight) may indicate inflammation if nephroptosis is complicated by pyelonephritis.
Gymnastics and exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles and lower back
Physical therapy for nephroptosis It is aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and lower back, as well as the normalization of intra-abdominal pressure.
A set of exercises for the treatment of nephroptosis
Gymnastics spend lying on a flat surface. Starting position - lying on your back. Exercises are performed at a slow pace of 5-10 times.
- Diaphragmatic breathing. When breathing in, inflate the belly as much as possible - raise the abdominal wall. On the exhale, draw in the stomach.
- Alternately raise straight legs while inhaling and lowering as you exhale.
- Alternately pull the legs bent at the knee to the abdomen while inhaling and straighten as you exhale. Under the lower back, you can put a small roller of a terry towel to maintain the physiological curvature of the spine.
- "Bicycle" exercise to perform 1-2 minutes.
- "Scissors". Raise straightened legs at a 45 degree angle and perform for 1-2 minutes.
- "Cat". Stand on all fours, bend your back down and raise your chin up. Stay in this position for 1-2 seconds. Bend the back of the arc, chin pressed to his chest.
- Bend your knees, feet rest against the surface. Knead the ball with your knees and stay in this position for 6-10 seconds.
- Complete gymnastics with diaphragmatic breathing.
Some sports are contraindicated in nephroptosis. Jogging, walking, weightlifting are undesirable - weightlifting, jumping, equestrian sport.
Causes of kidney prolapse
Nephroptosis - the so-called disease, in which the human kidneys can be located not where they should be at physiological norms. Omitted can be, as one kidney, and two. Diseases are more susceptible to women and the prolapse of the right kidney is diagnosed much more often.
Keep in mind! Kidney prolapse occurs if their natural support is impaired. In people with flabby abdominal muscles or their body weight is much lower than the norm, the pathology is much more common in comparison with people with a standard physique, engaged in sports, not fond of diets.
Nephroptosis can be said if there is a shift down by two or more centimeters. Pathology is not considered a shift of up to 1-2 cm, since mobility is normal for a healthy kidney.
The location of healthy kidneys
Consider the scheme of human physiology, exactly where the kidneys are located and why they can fall. Their place on the back of the abdominal cavity on the sides of the spine at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae, below the chest. Almost always, the right kidney is lowered by 1-1.5 cm compared to the left. In the normal position, they are held by the ligamentous apparatus - the renal bed, the renal leg and the membrane attached to the lateral parts of the spine. The renal sheath consists of:
- the connecting fibrous capsule is a thin smooth plate adjacent to the kidney substance itself,
- fat capsule - fatty loose tissue,
- connective tissue fascia.
The kidney is fixed in the renal bed due to the shell and a certain intra-abdominal pressure arising from the abdominal muscles and diaphragm. The neurovascular bundle comes to it and the ureter departs.
Symptoms of kidney prolapse may develop:
- Due to the weak ligamentous apparatus of the kidney.
- After injuries in areas of the body next to the kidneys. As a result, the kidney is pushed aside due to damage to the ligaments and the formation of a kidney hemangioma.
- Due to the weakening of the abdominal muscles. The most common reason for which the muscle tone decreases is a multiple or not first pregnancy.
- With a sharp and significant decrease in the thickness of the fat capsule, which can occur after an infectious disease or a sharp decrease in body weight.
Attention! Women who give birth are always at risk, but this does not mean that the birth of a child always leads to problems with the health of his mother. Omission of a kidney during pregnancy depends on the number of births and the size of the abdomen. A predisposing factor is the weakening of the fixation apparatus of the kidneys, as in pregnant women, abdominal pressure decreases sharply due to weakened abdominal muscles.
Diagnosis of kidney prolapse
It is important to know that bright clinical symptoms are present only in 15-20% of patients. The syndrome of a wandering kidney (another name for this pathology) does not occur in children with rare exceptions, and in adults it appears mainly at the age of 20-40 years. Some patient complaints are few in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. Required urinalysis, ultrasound and special methods of research. The mobility of the kidney is confirmed by urography - an x-ray examination of the urinary tract. Please note that urography is a review, excretory, infusion. In the first case, it is an ordinary X-ray, in the second and third - the same X-ray, but with a contrast agent that is administered intravenously to the patient. It is important that the doctor learns from the patient about the presence of allergic reactions. The doctor should take a sample before entering the drug. For control, a solution of the coloring matter is introduced into one forearm, and another solution with saline.
Symptoms of a wandering kidney
In urology, there are three stages of the disease. Regardless of the cause, a drop in the kidney can manifest itself as follows:
- The first stage - the pain is absent or there is a weak pulling pain in the lower back, which can increase with physical exertion. Violation occurs only if the person is in an upright position.If the patient falls, the kidney will return to its place and the pain will subside.
- The second stage - the pain in the abdomen is already long and pronounced, which indicates the progression of nephroptosis. Urine analysis shows protein, red blood cells. Omission is accompanied by stretching, twisting the vascular bundle and ureter. Renal artery and vein lumens are narrowed by half. Pathology is accompanied by impaired renal hemodynamics and obstructed urination.
- The third stage - all the above symptoms are aggravated. Pyelonephritis develops - inflammation of the kidney due to severe ischemia of the kidney tissue, venous hypertension and edema. Urinary congestion may occur during a deformed ureter. It is possible the pathological fixation of the kidney due to adhesive processes. The pain does not go away with a horizontal position, they are joined by the emotional component.
The omission of the right kidney has similar symptoms to the pathology of the left kidney, but the localization of pain is, of course, located on the right side of the patient's body.
Effects of kidney prolapse
Nephroptosis itself is not terrible, but it can lead to serious consequences in the form of complications. The patient must understand that the prognosis of his illness is unfavorable, if he does not undergo the course of treatment and will not follow the recommendations of the doctor. The most common complications of stray kidney syndrome:
Do urologists have unsightly medical statistics. In the last stage, the prolapse of the right or left kidney ends with the loss of efficiency in full. It's time to think about your health, because timely treatment started reduces complications to minimal cases. Do not forget that recovery depends not only on the qualifications of the attending physician, but also on how well the patient fulfills the prescription. Be healthy, take care!
Stages of nephroptosis
There are 3 stages of nephroptosis development:
- at stage 1 the lowered kidney is felt on the inhale through the abdominal wall, and on the exhale the kidney again goes under the costal edge and is not felt,
- at stage 2 nephroptosis, the kidney is completely palpable below the hypochondrium when the patient is in an upright position, but in the supine position again goes to the hypochondrium,
- at stage 3 kidney completely (regardless of the position of the body) out of hypochondrium and can be displaced even in the small pelvis.
Pathological displacement of the kidney can occur not only vertically, but also in the form of rotation (rotation) around the renal leg, or a pendulum. With the development of nephroptosis, a gradual stretching and twisting of the main vessels of the kidney - the veins and arteries - occurs. As the kidney vessels extend or lengthen, their diameter decreases.
Such changes in blood vessels lead to impaired blood supply to the kidney tissue: hypoxia and increased venous pressure, impaired lymphatic drainage. Changes in hemo - and lymphodynamics create the conditions for the development of chronic pyelonephritis (inflammation of the pelvis and kidney tissue).
At stage 3 of nephroptosis, the ureter may be bent, which will lead to disruption of urine outflow and expansion of the renal pelvis. Inflammatory, and then adhesions may occur around the kidney (perinephritis). These adhesions will fix the kidney in the pathological position. With the development of nephroptosis with impaired hemodynamics and urine outflow, clinical manifestations of nephroptosis appear.
Symptoms of kidney prolapse
As the prolapse of the kidney increases, the intensity and frequency of pains increase, there may be diffuse pain in the abdomen radiating to the back. In stage II nephroptosis, protein and erythrocytes appear in the urine due to hemodynamic disturbances in the kidney.
In stage III, pain is constantly disturbed and does not disappear in a horizontal position. This can reduce the patient's ability to work. Renal colic episodes are also possible when the pain becomes unbearable and may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
At the third stage of nephroptosis, appetite deterioration, dysfunction of the intestines, signs of depression appear. The progression of the disease leads to signs of pyelonephritis, an increase in blood pressure, and hydronephrosis (persistent, progressive expansion of the renal lobe system of the kidney due to a violation of urine outflow) can form.
An increase in blood pressure is initially noted only in the vertical position of the patient (orthostatic hypertension). In some patients, forical bleeding (bleeding that occurs during exercise) or pyelonephritis symptoms are the first manifestations of nephroptosis.
Nephroptosis during pregnancy
In women, nephroptosis develops in 10 r. more often than the representatives of the strong half of humanity. This is due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the female body: the kidney bed in women is wider and lower, the fatty capsule of the kidney in women is wider and shorter, the connective tissue of the ligament apparatus is more extensible, and the abdominal muscles are less developed than in men.
Previous pregnancies lead to stretching of the muscles of the abdominal wall, as a result of which intra-abdominal pressure is reduced. Therefore, most women celebrate the first symptoms of the disease after childbirth. With each subsequent pregnancy, the risk of nephroptosis increases. Therefore, in the postpartum period, gymnastics is so necessary for the abdominals, especially if there are other predisposing factors.
If nephroptosis was first detected during pregnancy, the doctor will prescribe a therapeutic exercise (knee-elbow posture), which can significantly reduce back pain. The frequency of such a posture depends on the severity of the disease. Usually this measure has the desired effect, the pain decreases.
Nephroptosis itself is not dangerous, complications that can result from kidney prolapse can be dangerous. Therefore, a pregnant woman in this case is assigned a comprehensive ultrasound and regular urine tests. With a decrease in the daily amount of urine or with the appearance of any disturbances in urination, a woman should immediately seek an examination and examination by a doctor.
Nephroptosis in children
Nephroptosis, or excessive mobility of the kidney, in children is associated with weakness of the ligamentous apparatus of the kidney. Most often, nephroptosis in children accompanies the curvature of the spine. Kidney prolapse is 4.7% in children. Girls suffer from this pathology in 8 r. more often boys.
Nephroptosis in children as well as in adults, leads to impaired hemodynamics, urodynamics and contributes to the development of pyelonephritis, high blood pressure, urolithiasis and hydronephrosis.
Clinical manifestations of nephroptosis in children can occur in 3 ways: asymptomatic, clinically manifest, and complicated nephroptosis.
Asymptomatic variant is observed in 13% of cases, nephroptosis is detected by chance, during examination for other diseases.
Clinically manifest variant occurs in 43% of cases. Manifestations of it are: abdominal pain syndrome (abdominal pain), urination disorders, urinary syndrome, increased blood pressure, neurological manifestations and the child’s lag in physical development.
Abdominal pain increases with physical exertion, decreases in the prone position. At the same time, nausea and relaxation of the stool may occur. Urinary syndrome is manifested by the appearance in the urine of erythrocytes, leukocytes, protein and bacteria. Dysuric syndrome is manifested by urinary incontinence (at night and daytime).
Prevention of nephroptosis in childhood is the proper physical education of the child, the exclusion of unbearable loads (including psychoemotional), ensuring rational nutrition and the prevention of child injury.
Conservative treatment is carried out in the absence of complications. For conservative treatment include: orthopedic treatment, abdominal massage, therapeutic exercises, spa treatment and diet.
Drug therapy is used only to treat complications of nephroptosis (pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, arterial hypertension).
Food for nephroptosis should be complete and varied. At the same time, the content of extractive substances should be excluded in order to reduce the irritating effect on the diseased organ. Of particular importance is the diet with a lag in weight and in the presence of complications.
Food should be fractional, up to 6 p. in a day. In the diet should include fruits and vegetables. The volume of fluid should be at least 1.5 liters per day. It is not recommended to drink carbonated drinks, strong broths, legumes, pickles, canned products, smoked meats, cakes. It is useful to include seafood salads in your meals.
With the development of chronic renal failure, the amount of protein in the diet should be controlled (limit to 25 g per day). First of all, it concerns vegetable proteins contained in cereals, legumes, and flour products. These proteins overload the body with harmful metabolic products, which are excreted in the form of slags through the kidneys. When renal dysfunction, slags remain in the body and have a toxic effect.
It is also necessary to control the amount of salt and phosphorus coming from food products. With kidney failure, salts linger in the body. Excess phosphorus leads to leaching of calcium from the bones (osteoporosis). The greatest amount of phosphorus is found in dairy products, legumes, cocoa, peanuts, beer.
Sodium causes fluid retention in the body, which contributes to the appearance of edema and an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the use of salt should also be limited.
Orthopedic treatment (bandage)
Wearing a bandage is very useful for nephroptosis. Wear a bandage (or orthopedic belt or corset) should be in the morning, still lying in bed. The orthopedic bandage needs to be put on only on an exhalation, otherwise its carrying will be useless. Remove the bandage should be in the evening before bedtime.
Currently, there is a large selection of corsets, bandages, orthopedic belts. Before purchasing any of them, it is necessary to consult a doctor, as there are a number of contraindications for their use. One of the contraindications is "fixed nephroptosis".
Physical therapy and abdominal massage have an effect only in stage 1 nephroptosis. Perform therapeutic exercises should be daily in the morning for 30 minutes. Exercises are performed in the supine position. Under the lower back you can put a small roller.
1. The legs are somewhat bent at the knees. Make 5-10 respiratory movements with the participation of the diaphragm: while inhaling as much as possible to push out the stomach, and when you exhale as much as possible to inhale it.
2. 5-8 p. lift up alternately straight legs.
3. 6-8 p. pull up to the stomach every leg bent at the knee.
4. Exercise "bike" to perform within 1-2 minutes.
5. For 6-8 seconds, squeeze a small ball between your knees. Exercise repeat 4-5 p.
6. 5-10 p. to lift up on inhalation both extended legs, on exhalation - to lower.
7. Raise straight legs up, knees and heels together. While inhaling, spread your legs apart, and while exhaling, cross your legs. Repeat exercise 5-6 p.
When the kidneys are omitted, sedentary games and walks through flat terrain are allowed. Jumping, hanging, stretching and running are prohibited.
At stage I of nephroptosis, sanatorium-resort treatment is widely used, especially with the use of hydrotherapy - bathing, bathing, drinking mineral water.
This treatment can be carried out in local sanatoria, as well as in the resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters (Kislovodsk, Pyatigorsk, Yessentuki, Zheleznovodsk) and in Truskavets (Ukraine).
Surgical treatment is carried out in the absence of the effect of conservative treatment and the development of severe complications of nephroptosis. Indications for surgical treatment: persistent pain, disability, chronic recurrent pyelonephritis, high blood pressure (orthostatic hypertension), hydronephrosis.
The purpose of surgical intervention is the fixation of the kidney (nephropexy) in its anatomical bed for a long time.
Currently, this operation is carried out mainly by the method of laparoscopy. It has several advantages: there is less risk of complications, the method is less traumatic, there is practically no blood loss, it is easier for the patient to recover after the operation.
Treatment of folk remedies
Recommendations of traditional medicine can be used in the initial stages of nephroptosis, along with conservative treatment. They contribute to the prevention of complications, reduce the intensity of pain, but it is impossible to return the dipped kidney to its normal position using traditional methods.
Recipes cooking folk remedies:
1. It is recommended to use sunflower seeds, pumpkins, flax, any nuts. Flax seeds can be sprinkled with potable water, sprinkled with powdered sugar and roasted in a dry frying pan. Take 3-4 p. per day for 1 tsp (chewing carefully).
2. Take 2 tbsp. crushed stalks of vein cochia, pour 300 ml of boiling water, leave for 12 hours, drain. Take 5 ml in between meals 3 p. in a day.
3. 100 g of natural honey mixed with 100 g of fresh butter and add 1 tbsp. almond and acorn coffee, 4 egg yolks. Take a mixture of 1-2 tsp. after meals several times a day.
4. Take 3 tsp. chopped onion peel, pour 400 ml boiling water, insist 30 minutes, strain the infusion and take 1 tbsp. 4 p. in a day.
5. Take in equal proportions the leaves of sage and mint, herb St. John's wort, wormwood, horsetail and chicory. Pour 2 tbsp. Collect 400 ml of boiling water, cook for 10 minutes. on low heat. Strain and take a decoction of 50 ml 3 p. in a day.
6. Therapeutic bath is prepared as follows: grind 1 kg of oat straw and pour 20 liters of water, boil for 1 hour over low heat, leave for several hours and use 2 r for a sitting bath. in a day. The decoction can be reused, reheating before the procedure. The duration of the bath is 30 minutes. The next day - a break.
Kidney prolapse - what is it?
Doctors use a simpler and shorter term - “nephroptosis”, which is translated as “kidney prolapse”. Agree, so to speak and intelligent, and easier. The prolapse of the kidney - this is the position of the body in which its location is outside the limits of its normal mobility, and this is especially pronounced in an upright position.
There is one more synonym - “pathological mobility”, and from it you can reach the concept of ren migrans, or “wandering kidney”. But first things first.
Let's see what contributes to the normal position of the kidney in a healthy person. After all, it is clear that these bodies are “not sewn”, but, for some reason, they shift only within narrow limits, and never leave their place.
Mechanisms for fixing a healthy kidney
If the kidney was not an intermediate “filtering station” to which the vessels fit, and the ureter departs, then it would be possible to ignore its position, just as we do not care exactly where our joints are - just there was no dislocation.
But, since during the displacement “hose kinks” may occur, nature has envisaged the following “wise steps” to keep the kidney in place:
- Kidney bed. This is nothing but a “fossa” in the lumbar muscles, in which an organ is arranged,
- The presence of pressure of the abdominals, which presses it to this hole,
- The fatty capsule that surrounds the kidney, and provides an additional fixative effect,
- The fibrous capsule that forms the ligaments that hang the kidney.
In the event that a disorder occurs in at least one of these mechanisms, the kidney first acquires increased physiological and then pathological mobility, during which it leaves its place. The normal mobility of a healthy kidney does not exceed the length of the body of one lumbar vertebra.
Do they take nephroptosis to the army?
Examination of citizens when registering for military registration and military service (including under contract) is carried out in accordance with the document "Schedule of diseases".
Nephroptosis in the Schedule of Diseases is classified under Article 72. The category of shelf life is determined depending on the degree of nephroptosis.
Conscripts with nephroptosis of 1 degree are classified according to Art.72 paragraph "G" - suitable for military service.
Surveyed with nephroptosis II Art. and with secondary pyelonephritis are classified according to Art.72 item "B" and are exempt from military service, they are credited to the reserve.
Examination of kidney disease is carried out on the basis of inpatient examination and treatment.
Stages of kidney prolapse
There are three stages of kidney prolapse. Consider them in more detail.
The first stage. The kidney is almost always in its place, but with a rather strong inhalation, if you palpate the stomach, you can determine what appears under the fingers the lower edge, or the pole of the kidney, which returns to its place when you exhale,
Second stage There may be a drop in the kidney by 5 cm, and more. While inhaling, the whole organ can leave its place, but, nevertheless, after exhalation, if the patient lies on his back, she returns to her “hole” painlessly, especially if you help her with your hand,
The third stage. The kidney leaves its place, and may be located in the small or large pelvis. Depending on the change in the position of the body, it “walks” where it pleases, and this condition is called a “wandering” kidney.
Of course, every body must be in its place. But after all, each of us, during our life, met acquaintances, or relatives, colleagues, who said that they had “kidney prolapse”. And at the same time they did not grab anyone and did not drag them to the operating table. It turns out that this is not a pathology? What does it matter where the kidney is, because it works fine? Is it dangerous to drop a kidney?
Danger and consequences of kidney prolapse
Of course, kidney prolapse is dangerous. Indeed, starting from the second stage, there is not only a movement of the kidney in the frontal plane - (up - down). It starts again and turns, and the turn takes place around the renal leg. These movements can be made in the form of oscillations of a pendulum. When this occurs, the tension and tension of the vessels, and sometimes there is their torsion.
Agree, not a very good condition in which the main renal vein and arteries are twisted. In this case, their lumen can be reduced by half, and at the time the blood flow can even sweep completely.
In the event that nephroptosis has reached the third degree, and the patient has a wandering kidney, then serious violations of not only hemodynamics, but also urodynamics, can begin. The following terrible complications may occur:
- Ischemia of the kidney, and even a heart attack and necrosis of its tissue, when the artery is torsion,
- Venous plethora, fraught with disruption of the parenchyma, with vein compression,
- Increased blood pressure and renal arterial hypertension, edema, and convulsions during torsion of the renal artery (imagine: you drink water and urine is not formed because blood does not flow into the kidney to filter)
- Occurrence due to stagnation of pyelonephritis, including purulent,
- Due to the long and “tangled” ureter, not only its bend can occur, but even the formation of nodes almost (albeit in rare cases). This leads to the emergence of acute urinary retention, the formation of an expansion of the renal pectoris system, the development of hydronephrosis with a decrease in the volume of the renal parenchyma, which filters blood plasma,
- Finally, this inflammatory process in the wandering kidney can spread to the adjacent organs - the uterus, intestinal loops,
- In addition, the adrenal glands suffer - they begin to change the production of hormones, because their blood supply is deteriorating. As a result, especially with bilateral omission, endocrine disorders may occur.
In the end, the omission can lead to the fact that simply the body will have to be removed. And well, if the second kidney is healthy, and will be able to "work for two." But sometimes it happens that she also turns out to be unwell, and then the patient needs periodic hemodialysis sessions, and sometimes a kidney transplant.
As you can see, the situation is quite serious, and you can not neglect the symptoms of kidney prolapse, and you should immediately contact the urologist. What signs of pathology exist? How to diagnose kidney prolapse in a child and an adult?
We have described the common symptoms of kidney prolapse, the treatment should be preceded by a diagnosis. What should be done to diagnose nephroptosis?
- nature of pain: gain in the evening, and with the load and subsidence at night,
- the appearance of blood in the urine is associated with exercise,
- may have recently been infections, injuries, weight loss.
Then the surgeon palpates the kidneys of the patient while standing and lying, and performs an ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space.
Ultrasound allows you to determine the stage of omission, and prove that we are dealing with a movable kidney, and not with a bowel tumor, for example. It is important that the ultrasound was performed and standing and lying down. Only such a study will be informative.
After it is proven that the organ is displaced downward, intravenous excretory urography is performed. This is the main method of the study, which shows how much the renal blood flow has suffered, and the urodynamics, that is, the excretion of urine, has been disturbed.
At present, there is practically no such method as retrograde pyelography, and magnetic resonance or computed tomography with contrast and angionephrography are performed. Isolated arterio - and venography of the kidney vessels must be carried out in a horizontal and vertical position, especially if renal arterial hypertension is suspected.
In addition, an x-ray examination of the intestines and abdominal organs, sometimes with a barium suspension, is carried out in the study. This is done in order to see if there is a common splanchnoptosis, or “the omission of all viscera.”
Additional laboratory tests are conducted: general urinalysis, bacteriological inoculation for pyelonephritis with antibiotic sensitivity, and many other tests as needed.
Treatment of kidney prolapse - what to do?
You have been diagnosed with a kidney prolapse. What to do? First of all, do not panic. If nephroptosis is detected, NTO does not mean that an operation is needed. On first. And even at the second stage, which has been going on for many years, it is quite possible to achieve a steady positive effect by conservative measures:
- Elastic bandage is applied when the kidneys are omitted. They put it on while still lying in bed in the morning, and take it off in the evening, going to bed,
- When omitting, a special complex of physical therapy is shown, in which the main task is to fix the kidney on the bed, and strengthen the muscles of the lower back. Most exercises are done lying down, highly recommended are exercises like “birch”, in which the legs are directed upwards, and the organ itself becomes in place,
- If the patient has a weight deficit, then you need to "increase fat" around the kidney capsule. To do this, you need to be on high nutrition for several weeks,
- It is necessary to monitor the pressure and condition of the urine. If necessary, uroseptics (furagin), anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic drugs are taken. It is important to know that it is only necessary to take diuretics in order to “expel the infection” with the permission of the doctor, and in the event that there is no torsion of the renal leg and obstacles to the passage of urine.
In the event that the prolapse of the kidney was complicated by various diseases, and reached stage 3, then surgical treatment is indicated. In addition, the indications for the operation are a strong bolt and a reduction in the ability to work and in those cases if the process is “assigned” to the second stage.
Before the operation, antibacterial therapy is carried out for 10 days, the patient is in bed rest, and the head end of the bed must be lowered and the foot end of the bed must be raised. This is done to put the kidney in place, and the ligamentous apparatus "recovered from pererasyazheniya."
The operation is called "nephropexy". A flap is cut out of the psoas muscle, on which the kidney is suspended. Thus, a new bundle is formed. After 3-5 days, the patient is already allowed to get up and walk, and anti-inflammatory treatment continues for another 2 weeks.
The main thing for a favorable prognosis is to perform the operation before the kidney tissues are affected by high pressure of the venous plethora and impaired passage of urine, as well as regular inflammation of the cup-pelvis system.
In this case, we can assume that the kidney ptosis is finished, and the person recovered. But in advanced cases, despite the operation, the patient will have a diagnosis of pyelonephritis, rarely - hydronephrosis, and he will be monitored by a urologist for life and conduct preventive treatment courses.
Do not be afraid to turn to the urologist at an early stage - and then you can do without surgery.
Causes of nephroptosis
The disease is classified into unilateral and bilateral nephroptosis. The displacement of both kidneys simultaneously is very rare in urological practice.
In case of pathological descent, the paired leg-shaped organ can move up to 11 cm, sometimes sinking into the pelvic cavity. Given this mobility, the kidney is defined as "wandering." The age category of patients suffering from nephroptosis is from 25 to 40 years. The disease has an ICD code 10 - N28.8.
There are several factors predisposing to the development of nephroptosis:
• rapid and drastic weight loss, which entails a massive decrease in fat in the kidney capsule,
• lifting large loads, hard physical work (most often it is this factor that causes kidney prolapse in men),
• renal diseases of infectious origin (especially if the disease is chronic, and the ligament supporting the kidney undergoes dystrophic changes)
• transferred closed injuries of the lumbar spine or abdomen (due to injury, ligaments that hold the kidney in the retroperitoneal space may suffer),
• in women it is the period of childbearing and childbirth, when constitutional changes occur in the body, which are characterized by weakening of the muscular part of the abdominal wall,
• obesity and rapid weight gain.
Most often, nephroptosis has a right-sided arrangement, and the majority of patients are women. The so-called risk group includes people of the asthenic constitution of the body (their subcutaneous tissue is poorly pronounced). One of the causes of kidney prolapse in women is if the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall during pregnancy are stretched to a critical state.
Symptoms of nephroptosis
Clinical manifestations of pathology are directly dependent on the stage of its development. Urologists identified three degrees of kidney prolapse:
• Nephroptosis 1 degree. This is the initial stage of the development of the disease, in which there are no complaints or other clinical symptoms. Palping the patient’s abdomen, the doctor gropes for a kidney. Pain may not bother at all, or noted, but in a minor manifestation. Often, taking a position on the side or back, it is possible to reduce the sensitivity.
• Nephroptosis 2 degrees. The patient has pain in the lumbar region - an unpleasant sensation is pulling and aching in nature. Sometimes an attack develops, which is aggravated by changing the position of the body. Examination by a specialist allows palpation of the kidney in the hypochondrium. The digestive function of the body worsens, nausea occurs. Clinical analysis of urine helps to identify protein and increased concentration of red blood cells, the urine itself is turbid in color.
• Nephroptosis 3 degrees. Painful sensations are strongly pronounced, an unpleasant sensation is noted almost continuously. Against the background of seizures, dyspeptic disorder develops - the patient becomes sick, the seizure ends with vomiting, salivation increases, digestive disorders, and bowel movements occur. The patient develops neurological disorders - irritability, fatigue, anxiety. The kidney is able to descend into the pelvic cavity. Clinical analysis of urine allows you to learn about significant deviations from the norm. Urin - a muddy color, has a pronounced unpleasant smell.
In a severe stage of development (when there is a drop of a kidney 6 cm or more), the patient develops first an inflammatory, and after adhesions. Localization of the lesion - the space around the kidney (pathology is defined as "perinephritis"). Formed adhesions limit, and then fix the kidney in the pathological position, preventing its movement as the patient changes body position. Hemodynamics is impaired, it becomes difficult, and then the full outflow of urine stops. Symptoms of kidney prolapse depend, including on comorbidities.
Often, simultaneously with the kidney prolapse, the patient has an attack of renal colic. By provoking reflex muscle contraction, it causes vomiting, involuntary urination and defecation. The condition is characterized by pallor of the skin, a decrease in blood pressure, increased heart rate. If renal colic has developed against the background of nephroptosis on the left, it is possible that the patient will have heart pain.
Considered pathology occurs in women during pregnancy, which jeopardizes the fact of gestation. If the patient had nephroptosis previously, without manifesting symptomatic, then after the birth of the child, the condition only worsens. Regardless of the degree of nephroptosis during pregnancy, an additional negative side of the disease lies in the high probability of miscarriage.
The level of danger to the body
The patient, having learned about his diagnosis, is immediately interested in whether the prolapse of the kidney is dangerous? Large blood vessels, the artery and vein, lie in each kidney: they are anatomically broad, shortened. When the kidney is displaced from the physiological niche in which it is supposed to be, the blood vessels are forced to stretch, narrowing the width of its lumen. This causes a circulatory disorder within this paired organ.
Also, the displacement of the kidney becomes a factor predisposing to the bending of the ureter, which is fraught with the development of acute urinary retention. These deviations from the normal state create beneficial conditions for the onset and progression of the inflammatory process of the renal tissue. Pathology is defined as “pyelonephritis” and, on an ongoing basis, can cause serious complications in the form of chronic renal failure.
Kidney Shift Complications
The disease has a tendency to progression, so if you do not provide qualified medical assistance in a timely manner, it will develop further. The uncorrected state provokes the following effects of kidney prolapse:
• Pyelonephritis.Inflammatory disease develops as a result of stagnation inside the kidneys - it is this pathological process that creates a favorable environment in which the pathogenic microflora is able to multiply and develop, expanding the spectrum of damage within the pelvis system.
• Secondary arterial hypertension - arises from a violation of the natural circulation of blood within the kidney. When this complication develops, a consistently elevated level of blood pressure (up to critical numbers) responds poorly to attempts at correction with drugs. Most often this is typical of clinical cases with a kidney drop of 5 cm or more.
• Hydronephrosis. The disease is characterized by flooding and edema of the renal membranes, as a result of which the paired organ significantly increases in size. The development of the disease is preceded by a violation of the process of outflow of urine, which is accompanied by the bending or twisting of the ureter.
Considering what threatens kidney prolapse, it is important to note the development of stroke and heart attack, which is due to the consistently elevated blood pressure.
Wearing special corsets for nephroptosis
Nephroptosis Bandage increases intra-abdominal pressure, limits the mobility of the abdominal organs and fixes the correct position of the kidneys. It must be worn all day, taking off only at the time of the gym and before going to bed.
The corset is worn for 3-12 months, during this time the ligaments are strengthened and the body is securely fixed. However, during this period, it is necessary to simultaneously train the abdominal muscles using gymnastics, otherwise they will weaken over the period of inactivity under the bandage, and the effect of treatment will not be achieved.
The purpose of wearing a bandage with nephroptosis strengthen the kidney support apparatus (ligaments, fascia, fat capsule), prevent the blood vessels from twisting the organ from being twisted.
How to wear a bandage? The bandage is worn in the morning, lying in bed. In order for the kidneys to become in place, it is necessary to take a deep breath, and then raise the pelvis and fasten the bandage.
To avoid chafing and to ensure sweat absorption, it is recommended to wear a corset over the underwear.
How to choose a bandage? Universal medical corsets are sold in pharmacies. In most cases, the line has 4 sizes. Choose a bandage, based on the waist. Thanks to the system of fasteners and velcro, the corset is tightly fixed on the figure.
Types of bandages
- Universal renal bandages. Do not allow the kidney to sink into the abdominal cavity, fixing its position. They are effective in stage 1-2 of kidney prolapse. Such bandages are contraindicated with severe pain and the development of inflammation of the kidneys, as they may impair its blood supply.
- Warm bandages recommended for inflammatory diseases. They are made of wool, retain heat well and activate sensitive skin receptors. This contributes to the expansion of blood vessels, improve blood circulation and speedy recovery.
- Pre-and postpartum bandages - Recommended from the 22nd week of pregnancy. Their function is to support the abdomen and prevent stretching of the abdominal muscles and reducing intra-abdominal pressure.
- Postoperative bandages necessary after kidney surgery to fix the organ and reduce the load on the affected area. In most cases, they are made individually.
Kidney drop surgery
Surgery for the treatment of nephroptosis is carried out in rare cases in 1-5% of patients. There are strict indications for the surgical treatment of kidney prolapse.
Indications for surgery for nephroptosis
- severe pain, disability,
- complications (pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis) that are not amenable to medical treatment,
- bleeding from the renal veins,
- renal stone disease.
Contraindications to surgery
- old age of the patient
- common splanchnoptosis - the omission of all organs of the abdominal cavity,
- severe diseases that increase the risk of surgery.
Method of operation
All methods of operation for nephroptosis can be divided into 4 groups:
- In the fibrous capsule of the kidney, the suture is made with kergut and with its help the kidney is fixed to the XII rib and to the lumbar muscles.
- Fixation of the fibrous capsule to the rib without flashing it, using patches of connective tissue of the capsule or peritoneum. This avoids the formation of scar on the kidney.
- Fixation of the organ using flaps of the pararenal fatty tissue, as well as synthetic materials: nylon, nylon, teflon. They form a kind of hammock, which houses the kidney.
- Fixation of the kidney to the ribs with muscle flaps.
The last group of operations is the most effective and is used more often than others. The surgeon makes an incision in the abdominal wall up to 10 cm long. It secures the kidney with the help of a section of the femoral muscle, which was previously taken from the same patient.
After surgery, the patient for 2 weeks must observe strict bed rest. To improve blood circulation, the foot end of the bed is raised by 25-30 cm.
Recently, laparoscopic surgery has become very common. Through the holes of 1-1.5 cm, thin tubes are inserted into the abdominal cavity with a surgical instrument attached to the end. With their help hemmed the fibrous capsule of the kidney. During the procedure, there is no need to open the abdominal cavity, so that the rehabilitation period is reduced to 5-7 days and the number of complications sharply decreases.
What do we have to do?
- In the absence of kidney complications, there is no need to stick to a diet. Food should be varied and complete to maintain immunity.
- Wear a support bandage during pregnancy.
- To do gymnastics to strengthen the abdominal muscles.
- Several times a day, it is recommended to lie down for a few minutes to improve blood circulation and urine outflow.
- Maintain optimum weight.
- Strengthen immunity, with the help of good nutrition and taking vitamins.
What to avoid?
- Work associated with a long stay in an upright position.
- Long stay in the zone of vibration.
- Weight lifting
- Injuries in the lumbar region.
- Hypothermia of the lower body and legs.
- Radical diets and drastic weight loss.
People with the first stage of nephroptosis need to visit a nephrologist at least once a year, undergo an ultrasound scan of the kidneys and take a urine test. This will help to correct treatment in a timely manner and prevent further development of the disease.
Main stages and symptoms
Often the pathological condition is observed in people 20–40 years old, and more often the organs are left out in women. In children, this condition is diagnosed very rarely.
Based on the course of the pathology and the symptoms that the kidney is omitted, there are 3 stages.
At the very beginning of the development of the disease, at 1 stage, the kidney can be felt only 1/3 of the part. During inhalation with palpation, the lower part of the organ is felt, and as you exhale, it enters the hypochondrium. The characteristic symptoms of the fact that the right kidney is omitted or that the left part of the paired organ is absent.
Many patients are interested in a drop of 7 cm in the kidney, which stage refers to a similar failure.
With this amount of deviations, the pathological process is referred to stage 1, the patient begins to dull pain, which I will go on and give to different parts of the lower back. These pains result from sprains of the renal capsule.
Pain syndrome begins to increase with exertion, and relief comes in a relaxed state, lying down, when the kidney can take its place in the body. Sign of omission of the right organ is the heaviness on the right under the ribs.
For stage 2, the output of the entire organ in the hypochondrium is characteristic; in the course of probing, 2/3 of the kidneys can be identified if the patient stands.
When lying down, the body assumes a normal position. With the progression of the pathological process, symptoms increase.
Patients feel more pain, like the one that develops with colic. They are amplified during loads, as well as with a sharp change in the position of the body.
For stage 2, changes in urine are characteristic, since the rate of protein, red blood cells, increases in it.
This condition leads to a stagnant process of blood in the affected organ, due to venous outflow malfunction.
With the onset of stage 3, the entire organ completely goes out from under the ribs, descends to the pelvic area. Pain syndrome becomes permanent and often gives to the groin area.
Often the pain is complemented by bouts of nausea and vomiting. If the kidney is lowered, the last stage is diagnosed, the pain does not appear from changes in the position of the body, it will be permanent.
In addition, by the same period begin complications, including:
- Increased renal pressure.
Obvious pains are not the only sign of omission. At stage 2-3 of the disease in patients may appear blood in the urine, during its outflow.
This is due to prolonged circulatory disorders, as well as a gradual increase in pressure.
The omission of the kidney causes and consequences is diverse, in some people develop mental and emotional failures, which are manifested by the following symptoms:
- Nervous irritability.
- Sleep disturbance, which is characterized by insomnia.
- Decreased appetite.
- Rapid tiredness, weakness in the body.
The described symptoms should not be overlooked, which can be indicated by the doctor after a precise determination of the causes, the establishment of the diagnosis and the stage of kidney prolapse.
The structure and causes of violations
In a healthy person, in a normal position, the kidney is held by means of its own fixative apparatus, which has a certain structure:
- Renal vessels - due to them appears "renal leg". Such vessels do not act out a significant role in the fixation of the organ, because if the paired organs are lowered, the leg may become longer.
- Fat capsule - has fatty tissue, which is necessary to protect the kidneys themselves, as well as their support in the correct position.
- Fascial apparatus - is localized to the outer part of the adipose tissue, includes a pair of sheets, namely the front and back. At the top of the kidney, both parts are joined, fused together, creating a suspending ligament. Due to this formation appears fascia, closing the diaphragm. It is this part of the structure that plays a maximum role in supporting the kidneys.
- The abdominal ligaments - the right part of the paired organ is held in the right places by the renal and hepatic-12-duodenal ligaments. The organ on the left side is supported by the splenic-renal and pancreatic-renal ligaments. Such parts of the structure not only hold the organs, but also close their front part.
- The bed of the kidneys - is formed by the muscles of the abdominal walls, the diaphragm.
In a healthy person, the kidneys are always mobile, and their amplitude is about 3.5 cm, but the average size is 2-5 cm.
With certain pathological failures, the weakness of the fixation apparatus begins, which causes an increase in the mobility of the organ, and also becomes the cause of the omission of a certain part.
If kidney prolapse is diagnosed, the causes and consequences will be different for each particular patient.
Very often with chronic pathologies that last for a long time, while there is a weight loss, exhaustion and thinning of the fat wall begins.
In adolescents, adolescent kidney failure often occurs with a sharp weight loss, which is caused by failures in the diet. Among the other reasons can be identified:
- Intensive training, load, non-compliance. The reasons described cause drastic changes in the pressure of the abdominal cavity.
- Incorrectly organized work, when under the working conditions a person succumbs to a long vibration, which can lead to a displacement of the paired organ.
- Injuries, especially after falls from a height. In this case, the fascia and the integrity of the ligaments are broken. Abdominal damage, lower back can be caused by hematomas that cause prolapse.
Women who have already given birth may have similar problems, such people are at risk.
After carrying a child, a rapid decrease in pressure in the abdomen appears as the muscles relax.
This condition causes the weakening of the fixing parts of the paired organ, and also becomes the reason for the descent of the kidney in women during pregnancy.
Risks of the development of the problem are directly related to the size of the abdomen, as well as stretching its walls, during gestation.
If kidney prolapse occurs, the symptoms and causes are known, then you need to know about the possible consequences of the pathological condition.
Most often, the consequences appear as a result of the failure to provide therapy when the problem goes into a neglected form. The main complications are:
- Pyelonephritis - is characterized by a strong renal inflammation, due to compression of the vessels. The affected part does not receive the proper amount of oxygen and nutrients, renal ischemia appears. When circulatory failure occurs, the main functions are disturbed, which causes the appearance of pathogenic bacteria and the inflammatory process.
- Hydronephrosis - the problem is characterized by impaired urine output, stagnant processes and distension of the pelvis-pelvis kidney parts occur. As a result, the tissues atrophy, the kidney does not perform its work, there may be organ failure.
- Urolithiasis - the appearance of calculus causes disruptions in the release of urine, canals are blocked, and after a while there are acute signs of illness and severe pain.
- Venous hypertension of blood vessels - in case of pathology, a strong lengthening of the vascular pedicle or its twisting begins, which occurs due to impaired blood flow. Renal veins are filled with blood, causing high pressure, the walls become thin, can burst.
It is possible to avoid complications and serious consequences with timely diagnosis and treatment.
At the beginning of the development of a kidney prolapse, doctors can establish a diagnosis based on the results of collected tests, symptoms, and some instrumental methods of examination.
The main stages of diagnosis are as follows:
- Complaints, characteristic symptoms and the onset of their manifestations are collected. Patients need to clearly describe the problems, pains and the beginning of their development.
- The doctor performs palpation to feel the kidney in front of the abdomen in the hypochondrium region. Immediately determined the intensity of pain when pressed.
- Urography - the method will consist in the use of X-rays with contrast, which will help establish the stage of renal prolapse. The diagnostic method helps to accurately determine the localization of the kidneys, the structure of the vessels.
- Ultrasound is a safe but low informative method for omission. It will help to establish the pathology only in 3 stages, with 1-2 degrees of the course of the disease, ultrasound will not give positive results, because it is carried out lying when the kidney returns to its normal position.
Be sure to give blood and urine for analysis. After obtaining the necessary data, doctors determine treatment and prevention methods.
Depending on the stage of omission, the therapy will be different, in addition, the principles change when patients have complications.
The course of treatment is selected based on the age, other features of the patient. The main methods are conservative and surgical treatment.
Medicines can only be used in conjunction with other medical procedures. Conservative measures in the early stages are used to strengthen the nodes, muscles.
When a kidney is omitted, it is important to arrest the effects and symptoms.For this you need to use drugs that relieve inflammation, impaired output of urine, pain and other manifestations.
In addition, drugs are used after and before surgery to reduce the risk of complications.
The main groups of drugs for the disease are:
- Antispasmodic to eliminate cramps.
- Antibiotics that are used to kill pathogens and eliminate inflammation.
- Medications for the normalization of pressure.
- Painkillers prescribed for acute pain.
Any drugs are prescribed by a doctor. Self-use of drugs is prohibited, but there are no universal remedies, since all pills can be taken individually, depending on many factors.
Treatment can be carried out at home, but methods of alternative medicine are used only after consulting a doctor.
Any recipes should be used in conjunction with medicines, proper nutrition and they will be effective in the initial stages.
For the prevention of severe omission, recurrence, you can use infusions based on herbal ingredients, including:
- Dill and parsley.
- Sheets and hips.
- Knotweed, Echinacea.
The described components must be poured 250 ml of boiling water per 1 tbsp. collection or self grass. Leave to infuse overnight and drink 3 times a day.
Such simple means improve the general well-being of the patient, restore renal work, improve pressure.
It is useful when omitting to use warm water procedures. In the bath for the effect is added oatmeal or straw infusion.
If omission at stage 1, then you need to use exercises for chest breathing, which strengthens the muscles of the diaphragm, corset.
Compliance with the diet and diet should be at omission, the cause of which is the rapid weight loss and depletion of fatty tissue.
To improve the condition used high-calorie foods and dishes. The diet itself should include a lot of carbohydrates and fats, and the essence of the diet is to normalize the state of fatty tissue and neighboring tissues.
When using nutrition, it is necessary to take into account the stage of pathology and complications. With an organ failure, the diet should be high-calorie and light at the same time, so that the amount of slags is minimal.
You need to use the right dishes and foods, exclude fried. The basic principles should be indicated by the doctor after diagnosis.
One of the methods of conservative treatment is the use of a bandage. At the expense of such a device, it turns out, to fix the kidneys, keeping them in the correct position, not allowing the organ to fall below.
For maximum benefit, you need to additionally do gymnastics, so that the muscles do not weaken. Exercises when wearing a bandage are required.
You also need to know that such support of the pair body is used for a long time, in some cases, about a year.
The device helps to reduce pain, but they can not completely retire. Due to this, it is necessary to apply additional measures.
Exercise therapy for omission is recommended by doctors at the beginning of the development of pathology. The bottom line is to strengthen the muscles of the back, waist and abdomen.
It is these parts that maintain the correct pressure inside and also fix the paired organ. Before the gymnastics it is necessary to determine the work, the general condition of the kidneys.
With complications in the form of organ failure or other pathologies, the load is limited, eliminated completely.
For the treatment, they use simple exercises that are easy to do at home 1-2 times a day for about 15-30 minutes. An exemplary set of exercises is as follows:
- Put your hands along the body, inhaling the air, dissolve them on the sides, press it to the body during exhalation, repeat 5-6 times.
- Lying on your back, you need to raise your arms above your head and lift your legs in turns, repeat 5 times.
- Lying on your back imitate walking for up to 2 minutes.
- Press your knees to the chest and hold them with your hands for 5-10 seconds, repeat 6 times.
- Put your hands behind your head, bend your legs, inhale the air, raise your pelvis, take the starting position when leaving, do it 5 times.
- Put your hands behind your head, bend your legs in the joints, repeat 5 times.
- Lying on your back as much as possible to raise straight legs up, repeat 5 times.
- Sit and lie down slowly from the recumbent position, do 5 repetitions.
- Put a cushion or a pillow under the waist, inhaling to bend the left leg in the knee, put it on the exhale. Repeat the exercise 20 times, alternating legs.
- Breathing in, try to pout, hold for a couple of seconds. Exhaling as much as possible to tighten it, lock in for 2 seconds, repeat 10 times.
Treatment can be carried out with the help of other exercises. It is useful when omitting to go to yoga, pilates and similar sports. The main thing is not to do it yourself, and get permission from the doctor.